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Viruses

Immune response in the outcome of schistosomiasis

The type of T cell-mediated immune response has a key impact on the outcome of several parasite infections. This solution uses schistosomiasis as an example to explain how different types of T cell response can have different effects on the control of the parasite.

Routes of transmission of human viruses

This posting shows the principal routes of infection used by all significant human viruses. This may be of use in virology or microbiology questions regarding routes of transmission or prevention.

Designing antiviral drugs

Antiviral drugs must be designed in a different way to that used for antibiotics or other anti-infective agents. This solution details the considerations that must be taken into account when developing antiviral drugs, and gives examples of different classes of antivirals.

Th1 and Th2 immune responses in immunity to infections

The CD4 T cell response can develop into either Th1 or Th2 responses, characterized by production of different cytokines. These two different responses have evolved to deal with different types of infections. The solution details which infections are most effectively controlled by each type of response, and details the underly

Questions about vaccines

I can not figure this problem out. Subunit vaccines can be made by genetic engineering of yeast cells. A side effect of this kind of vaccination might be_______. the disease a yeast infection duet to extraneous material that the vaccine doesn't provide immunity none of the above Which enzyme does not make sticky en

characteristics of life

Chapter 1 of our textbook we start off learning about the characteristics of life. By now you know that ALL living things: 1. are composed of cells (have structural order) 2. have homeostasis, or maintain internal regulation such as body temperature adjustments in a cold or hot environment 3. grow and develop- for example

Double stranded virus genomes

Viruses vary in the makeup of their genetic material. Some have double-stranded DNA, but other viruses have genomes composed of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, or single-stranded RNA. Single-stranded molecules have a single polymer of DNA or RNA that does not form a double-helix and does not base-pair with a complement

Determine why a virus wouldn't infect host cell without protein

A researcher, studying two different viruses (A and B) that infect the same cell type, digests away all the protein and transfers the nucleic acid directly into the host cell. Only virus B causes the infection. This suggests: a) Virus A is likely to be a naked virus b) Virus A is likely to be an enveloped virus c) Virus A i

Cells - In Your Intestines

Please help me understand the function of all the following types of cells. a) Macrophages. b) Basophils. c) Monocytes. d) Platelets. e) Red blood cells. Also, which of these cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?

Development of flue (influenza) vaccine

Why are vaccines developed to combat flu only partially effective? Why has the search for treatments for the flu (or a cure), been less successful than the development of drugs to combat or cure bacterial infections?

Summarize the process of antibody mediated immunity

Q. Summarize the process of antibody mediated immunity from the point at which the B-lymphocytes are stimulated to the time that antibodies are produced. Be sure to include the role of other immune cells (i.e.: in addition to B cells) in this process.

Koch's Postulates and Molecular Genetics

I understand that Koch's postulates have limitations, but I don't understand how that plays a role in molecular genetics. Here is my question. Given the limitations of Koch's postulates, what role do you see for molecular genetics and associated techniques in addressing the exceptions to the postulates?

How does the immune system sense the presence of a pathogen?

Please help with the following problem. Provide a short explanation, in at least 100 words. The immune system must be able to ignore normal human proteins, but be able to rapidly respond to infectious agents. Please give details about how the immune system can make this discrimination, which leads to the development of an i

Flu Viruses are explained briefly.

A brief explanation occurs for this question: Every year new flu viruses arise in the world, and yet most of the time we have one or more lymphocytes that can respond to these new viruses. How is this so?

Eight AIDS/HIV related questions and answers.

11. What are the characteristics of a long term non-progressive (LNTP)? 12. Antibodies are produced by ___ cells of the immune system. 13. What is the "incubation period" for HIV? 14. What opportunistic infection (O.I.) causes blindness? 15. If a person has a negative test for HIV how many months should he/she wait for a ret

You work for a company which creates posters and informational material for doctor's offices. Your team's new project is to prepare information on the immune system. This information will be sent to graphic designers later to polish the visuals, but you need to ensure that the content is accurate.

The immune system is composed of several types of cells whose coordinated, concerted effort is required for screening, identification, and eventual purging of microbial invasion. This is especially evident when the body launches the Specific Immune Response, comprised of both Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity. Create a network

If you inoculate fresh Nutrient Broth with 100 cells of Escherichia coli

1. If you inoculate fresh Nutrient Broth with 100 cells of Escherichia coli and keep the culture at the optimal temperature of 37°C, assuming the generation time is 30 minutes, how many generations will take place after 7 hours? How many bacteria will be present? Will the number of bacteria continue to double every 30 min

Allergy and Immune Response

Explain role of the immune system and response of the immune system against allergies. See the attached file.

Infection and Disease / Resistance and Immune System

1. Name the five classes of immunoglobulins and their functions. 2. Outline the types of immunity? Which type of immunity produces lifelong immunity? Which type of immunoglobulin is present with this type of immunity? 3. Name four bacterial and four viral diseases, covered in this chapter, for which a vaccine is curren

Immune System

1) Describe how the mammalian immune system responds to (i) a laceration, such as an injury from falling on a barbed-wire fence, and (ii) a viral infection. 2) Explain how the flu vaccination works and why it has a fairly low success rate.

Study questions: viruses, bacteria, diseases, etc.

41. Describe general characteristics of picornaviruses. 42. Define plaque, lawn of bacteria. 43. Define normal and transient microbiota. 44. Compare commensalism, mutualism, symbiosis, and parasitism, and give an example of each. 45. List Koch's postulates and the exceptions. 46. Categorize diseas