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    Th1 and Th2 immune responses in immunity to infections

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    The CD4 T cell response can develop into either Th1 or Th2 responses, characterized by production of different cytokines. These two different responses have evolved to deal with different types of infections. The solution details which infections are most effectively controlled by each type of response, and details the underlying mechanisms.

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    A CD4 T cell response can be polarized either towards a Th1 response or a Th2 response during the early stages of infection. Th1 cells primarily produce the cytokines interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor, whereas Th2 cells primarily produce interleukins 4 and 5. Typically virus infections or infection with intracellular bacteria or parasites (e.g. tuberculosis, toxoplasma, listeria) trigger a Th1 ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution details what types of infections are most effectively countered by Th1 or Th2 CD4 T cell responses. An explanation is provided for why the relevant response is particularly appropriate for each type of infection.