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Modern Quantum Theory

Modern Quantum Theory is the theoretical foundation of physics which helps explain the chemical behavior of matter at both the atomic and subatomic levels. Quantum theory focuses on the application of quantum mechanics within chemical systems, relying on both experimental and theoretical methods.

Today, quantum chemists use many different methods to investigate the quantum nature of chemical phenomena. One such method is spectroscopy, which can calculate and determine the quantization of energy within an atom. Since molecules have discrete energy levels, quantum chemists can use this data to determine the state of atoms, whether they are in the ground state, excited state, or even in transition states when they undergo different chemical reactions. Another popular method is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, which exploits the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei. NMR Spectroscopy can determine the structure, chemical environment, and the reaction state of a particular molecule, just by analyzing the properties of its nuclei.

The modern focus of quantum theory in chemistry is the electronic structure of a molecule or crystal, as a molecule’s electronic structure will ultimately determine how it behaves in different conditions, and how it will react with different molecules within different chemical systems.

Thus, studying modern quantum theory in the context of chemical systems is essential in constructing a conceptual framework needed to understand the atomic and subatomic behavior of atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

Orbitals: Strong and Weak Fields

Question 1: Consider the [Mn(H2O)6]^2+ a) Draw the crystal-field energy level diagram for the 3d orbitals and show the placement of d electrons assuming this is a weak-field complex ion. b) Repeat a) assuming this is a strong - field complex ion. Question 2: ML6 is a general formula for any octahedral complex ion.

Nuclear Chemistry Question

Please see the attachment. i) Give the expression for the energy levels of a nucleus exhibiting collective quadrup vibrations, taking care to explain the symbols used. State the spin and parity of the first excited state expected in a nucleus exhibiting colle quadrupole vibrations and a nucleus exhibiting collective octupo

Escaping Electrons

The first ionization potential of potassium is 419 kJ/mol. If UV-­?radiation with wavelength ? = 250 nm is used to eject electrons from potassium, the energy of each photon in excess of the ionization potential provides kinetic energy to escaping electrons. The mass of an electron is 9.109 x 10-­?31 kg. What will be the veloci

Chemistry: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

5. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is represented mathematically as deltax × m*deltav = h/2, where deltax is the uncertainty in the position, deltav is the uncertainty in the velocity and h is Planck's constant divided by 2. Would it be possible to develop an instrument that could determine both the position and velocity

Atomic number and electronic configuration in a new universe

Suppose you take a trip to a distant universe and find that the periodic table there is derived from an arrangement of quantum numbers different from the one on Earth. The rules in that universe are: 1. principal quantum number n = 1, 2, ... (as on Earth); 2. angular momentum quantum number l = 0, 1, 2, ... n - 1 (as on Ear

Line, Wavelength, State of Origination and Region

A line in the Brackett series of hydrogen has a wavelength of 4052 nm. From what state did the electron originate? n_1 = ________ In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum is this line observed? __ radio __ gamma rays __ microwaves __ ultraviolet __ infrared __ visible __ X rays

Ejecting Electrons with Light

The minimum frequency of light needed to eject electrons from a metal is called the threshold. Find the minimum energy needed to eject electrons from a metal with a threshold frequency of 3.27*10^14s^-1. With what kinetic energy will electrons be ejected when this metal is exposed to light with a wavelength of lamda = 245

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

QUESTION 16a: Consider a 2470-lb automobile clocked by law-enforcement radar at a speed of 85.5 pmh (miles/hour). If the position of the car is known to be within 5.0 feet at the time of the measurement, what is the uncertainty in the velocity of the car? QUESTION 16b: If the speed limit is 75 mph, could the driver of th

Uncertainty In Electron Position

Please see the attached file. Also, please show all solution details. Thank you. German physicist Werner Heisenberg related the uncertainty of an object's position (deltax) to the uncertainty in its velocity deltav. The mass of an electron is 9.11 x 10-31 kg. What is the uncertainty in the position of an electron moving at 9

Regiochemistry and Product Ratios of Aromatic Reactions

How does one predict the regiochemistry of the products of aromatic reactions like nitration? What factors are responsible for the product ratios seen in such reactions? What effects do the type of reagents used in such reactions have on product ratios? How does changing the steric bulkiness of the reagent affect the product rat

Transformation into a cation

An atom becomes a cation if a. it gains one or more electron b. it loses one or more electron c. it shares electrons d. one or more of its electrons changes energy levels e. it emits radiation

Orbital Diagrams: Example Problems

I am having major difficulty understanding the whole orbital shell thing (electron configuration) where does the 1, where do the p's d's s's and why are they numbered a 2 3 4? .. I have read and asked questions to my teacher and I just don't understand it especially how would and orbital diagram be drawn for these elements. I

Shielding of Electrons: Estimating Zeff

The shielding of electrons gives rise to an effective nuclear charge, Zeff, which explains why boron is larger than oxygen. Estimate the approximate Zeff felt by a valence electron of boron and oxygen, respectively: a)+5 and +8 b)+3 and +6 c)+5 and +6 d)+3 and +8 e)+1 and +4

More effective than outer shell electrons in shielding

Please see the attached file for full problem description. 1. Why are inner shell electrons more effective than outer shell electrons in shielding? Why is the energy diagram for multi electron atoms different from that of the hydrogen atom? 2. How many electrons in a single atom can have the following quantum nu

Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams

Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations. Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. For example, [He]2s^22p^2 1)Cs 2)Ni 3)Se 4)Cd 5)U 6)Pb Identify the

Quantum numbers possible values

1)For n=4, what are the possible values of l? 2)For l=2, what are the possible values of m1? 3)If m1 is 2, what are the possible values for l (for all atoms in their ground states that are known to exist)?

Bohr Model and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

1. Using equation E = (-2.18 x 10^-18)(1/n^2) a) Calculate the energy of an electron in the hydrogen atom when n = 2. b) Calculate the energy of an electron in the hydrogen atom when n = 6. c) Calculate the wavelength of the radiation released when an electron moves from n = 6 to n = 2. Is this line in the visible regi

Molecular Orbital: Example Questions

Construct a molecular orbital diagram for each geometry Which of the following are true: 1. The positively charged carbon atom contributes four valence electrons to the molecular orbitals of the methyl cation. 2. The lowest unoccupied orbital for the planar methyl cation is an sp2 hybrid orbital. 3. The LUMO in the tetra

Mercury electrons

1. Mercury-205 has how many protons, neutrons, electrons, and electrons in the 1st quantum shell? 2. In the compound BCl3 which is the more electronegative element? 3. Which has the higher boiling point? 8-carbon alkane that is a straight chain or an 8-carbon alkane that is branched? 4. Which has the higher octane ra

Example Chemistry Review Problems

I'm reviewing for my Chem final and need stuff explained. Please give very in-depth explanations and answers so I can understand how to do it. The first line of the Balmer series occurs at a wavelength of 656.3 nm. What is the energy difference between the two energy levels involved in the emission that results in this spect

Electron Configurations

The general electron configuration for atoms of all elements in Group 5A is ________. ns2np6 ns2np5 ns2np4 ns2np3 ns2np1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Which element has the following electron configuration? [Kr]5s24d105p1 Sn Sb Cd Ga In ------

Photochemistry, de Broglie Wavelength, and Electrons

1. Careful spectral analysis shows that the familiar yellow light of sodium lamps (such as street lamps) is made up of photons of two wavelengths, 589.0 nm and 589.6 nm. What is the differene in energy (in joules) between photons with these wavelengths? 2. What is the de Broglie wavelength, in cm, of a 12.4-g hummingbird flyi

What is the quantum of light called? (Multiple Choice Questions)

1. What is the quantum of light called? a. the amplitude b. the frequency c. a photon d. the wavelength 2. What is the oxidation number CHANGE for the iron atom in the reaction: 2 Fe2O3(s) + 3 C(s) --> 4 Fe(s) + 3 Co2(g)? a. -6 b. -3 c. +3 d. +6 3. Of the following, which element has the highest first ionization

Crystal Field Theory: High-Spin and Low-Spin Complexes

1 (a) Write a structural formula for two different isomers of [Co(H2O)2(en)2]Cl2. Indicate the oxidation state of the Co in each case. (b) For the complexes in (a) above, draw a crystal field energy level diagram for either isomer, and indicate the electron distribution for (i) a high spin complex, and (ii) a low spin complex

25 General Chemistry Multiple Choice Questions

1) Which of the following statements is correct for an electron that has the quantum numbers n = 4 and ml = -2? A. the electron may be in a p orbital B. the electron may be in a d orbital C. the electron is in the second principal shell D. the electron must have a spin quantum number ms = + ½ 2) The set of quant

energy level of electrons in atoms

Which of the following is true? A. The 3s level in hydrogen has a lower energy than the3d level in hydrogen. B. The 4s level in multielctron atoms is equal in energy to the 3d level in multielectron atoms. C. The 2s level in multielectron atoms has a greater energy than the 2s level in hydrogen. D. The 2s level in multiele