Share
Explore BrainMass

Bipolar Mood Disorders

Bipolar Disorders are mood disorders that have periods of mania or hypomania, and periods of depression. There are three different types of bipolar disorder.

Bipolar I Disorder is characterized by episodes of mania that are accompanied by episodes of depression. Mania is the the dominant feature

of Bipolar I disorder. Those who suffer from Bipolar I often talk rapidly, sleep less than normal, are impulsive and take on many tasks.

To be diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, an individual must have one or more manic episodes OR mixed episodes. A major depressive episode may have occurred in the past or present but is not required for diagnosis.

Bipolar II Disorder is characterized by hypomanic and depressive episodes.

To be diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, an individual must have experienced one or more major depressive episodes with at least one hypomanic episodes.

Cyclothymia includes long term (at least 2 years) cyclings of moods between depression and hypomania. Hypomania is not severe enough to be considered a manic episode.

 

There are three types of mood disorder episodes that can be found in a bipolar episode: 

1. Major Depressive Episode - five or more of the following must be present during the same 2-week period and represent change from previous functioning:

  • *Depressed mood
  • *Diminished pleasure/interest in almost all activities
  • Significant change in weight or appetite
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt 
  • Diminished ability to think/concentrate or indecisiveness
  • Reccurent thoughts of death/suicide 
  • at least one of the starred (*) systems must be present 

2. Manic Episode - abnormally and persistantly elevated, expansive or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week (or shorter if hospitalitized). At least three of the following symptoms must be present:

  • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Extra talkative or pressured speech
  • Flight of ideas; "mind racing" 
  • Distractibility
  • Increase in goal-directed activity
  • Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that are dangerous

3. Mixed Episode - criteria for manic episode and major depressive episode in 1 week period.

4. Hypomanic Episode - criteria met for manic episode for 4 days, but symptoms not severe enough to cause impairment or hospitalization.

 

How is BPD treated?

The most effective anti-manic drug for treatment of bipolar disorder is lithium carbonate - a naturally occurring molecule. This has relatively severe side effects and is extremely toxic in overdose. Unfortunately, the amount needed to attain a response is close to toxic levels.

Drugs originally developed to treat epilepsy have also shown efficacy in treating bipolar disorders. They are mood stabilizers and work on the GABA neurotransmitter and are generally used to treat bipolar disorder by inhibiting neural activity. 

Client compliance is a often a problem for those who are bipolar. Many enjoy the the initial phases of a manic episode and cease taking their medication. Using psychotherapy with medication has been shown to increase compliance.

The benefits of utilizing a balance sheet in psychotherapy

A therapist utilizing the balance sheet method to help their clients in general, deals with the economics of an enterprise as well as help them with strategies to reaching a decision or goal. In therapy, the balance sheet method can help clients come to grips with the economics of problem managements and opportunity development.

Borderline Personaity Disorder

Visit the site, "Lost Among Us" at http://lang.sbsun.com/projects/lostamongus/displayarticle.asp?part=6&article=art02_saida03 and get to know the sad case of Saida Dugally, a real-life woman who suffered from bipolar disorder until her tragic death in 2003. On this web resource you will find videos of her story and the timelin

Bipolar Disorder and Bereavement

If a client has being already diagnosis with Bipolar disorder. How might bereavement complicate a client's diagnosis. How can a counselor and or psychologist make changes to the client's diagnosis

Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive illness)

What is Bipolar disorder, also known as Manic-Depressive illness? What are the typical symptoms of the disorder? What is the typical age of onset of the disorder? Is the disorder more prevalent in men or in women?

Bi-Polar Disorders: Summary

Describe bi-polar disorder in two ways: clinically (objectively) and emotionally (subjectively). Compare and contrast biologically and psychologically based treatment for each. Does the approach make a difference when the depression is viewed objectively vs. subjectively? Why or why not?

This paper provides an analysis of bipolar disorder: it's neurological basis; it's signs, symptoms, and functional deficits associated with it; and it's prognosis, causes and therapeutic interventions.

This paper provides an analysis of bipolar disorder. First, the neurological basis of bipolar disorder will be explained. Second, the behavioral symptoms and functional deficits associated with bipolar disorder will be discussed. Third, the biological and environmental factors implicated in the onset of bipolar disorder will be

Question about bi polar disorder

I would like to know do people with bipolar disorders ever recover? I have heard of some people that have this disorder may go on a manic shopping spree buying everything in the store, then when that mood switches they start to become really depressed. Are bipolar people able to function fairly well in society? If so is it becau

Overlapping Genetic Roots with Bipolar Disorder

Http://www.medpagetoday.com/Psychiatry/Schizophrenia/12480 Can you comment/critique on the above copied article backing up your writing with references from your text readings & any other research you may do on the subject. Please add citations/references for whatever idea that is not your own. Please research your comme