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    Second Law of Thermodynamics

    "The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases due to the fact that isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium"¹. Thermodynamic equilibrium is the state of maximum entropy. 

    The second law of thermodynamics can be understood and explained using the underlying quantum statistical mechanics with the assumption of low-entropy initial conditions in the distance past. In statistical mechanics, entropy is the measure of the number of microscopic configurations corresponding to a macroscopic state.

    The second law of thermodynamics has been expressed in many ways. The following at the most predominantly used.

    Clausius Statement
    Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change.

    Kelvin Statement
    It is impossible to cool matter in a system below the temperature of the coolest of the surround objects

    Principle of Caratheodory
    In every neighborhood of any state S of an adiabatically isolated system there are states inaccessible from S.



    1. Planck, Max. "Vom Relativen Zum Absoluten."Die Naturwissenschaften 13.3 (1925): 463-64. Print.

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    BrainMass Categories within Second Law of Thermodynamics


    Solutions: 21

    Entropy is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a system may be arranged.

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    Efficiency and Heat Exchange by Reversible Heat Engines

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    AP Chemistry 8 Questions (Multiple Subjects)

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    answers for solution concentration and thermodynamics law

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    Turbine Thermo Steam Velocity

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    Power required to drive the compressor

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    Efficiency of Electric Baseboard Heat, Recycling Energy and Renewable Energy

    1. A home builder installs electric baseboard heat and claims, "It is the cheapest and cleanest way to go." Apply your understanding of the second law of thermodynamics and net energy efficiency chain to evaluate this claim. 2. Someone tells you we can save energy by recycling it. How should you respond? 3. Should governme

    Vegetarians, thermodynamics and sustainability

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    Chemical potential as a function of pressure

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    Energy Analysis Of Closed Gas Systems

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    General Chemistry Concepts

    Hi, I need some assistance with the following questions: 1. "Energy can be converted to one form or another, but cannot be created or destroyed." This the theory of: - Calorimetry - Electromagnetic radiation - Quantum numbers - Thermodynamics 2. Generally, ionization tends to decrease as you move tow

    Calorimetry and Heat Flow: Thermodynamic Quantities

    The following acid-base reaction is performed in a coffee cup calorimeter: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) --> H2O(l) The temperature of 110 g of water rises from 25.0°C to 26.2°C when 0.10 mol of H+ is reacted with 0.10 mol of OH-. Calculate qwater, Calculate ΔH for the reaction, Calculate ΔH if 1.00 mol OH- reacts

    How much steam is required for each pound mass of entering acid?

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    How much steam is required and what is the final conc of H2SO4 in tank?

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