Explore BrainMass

Evaluation & Assessment

Developing countries and production of pollution

Post an original response (100-300 words) to the following: Some developing countries argue that they should be exempt from limits on the production of greenhouse gases and that developed countries should bear the brunt of the changes that appear to be necessary to curb global climate change. What values, beliefs, and perspe

Comparing 3 Educational Components to Teaching and Learning Theories

I badly need assistance writing a four-page paper. These are the requirements of my paper. Can someone please assist me? Describe in detail the particular educational program you are going to analyze. Explain the 3- 5 specific program components that you will address. (for example, program components might be presentation

Agricultural Practices in the 21st Century

Post an original response to the following (100-300 words) and then respond to another learner. Do you think that current agricultural practices are sustainable? Why or why not? What changes in agriculture do you think will need to happen in the next 50 years?

Individual Psychology and Psychoanalysis

After viewing the Case with Stan and Lecturettes from the Psychoanalytic and Adlerian Therapy perspectives, write a response discussing the counselor's use of these therapies in the sessions with Stan. Conclude with how the usage of these therapies will be purposeful in your counseling. Consider who, when, where and how you migh

Existential and Person-Centered Approaches

After viewing the Case with Stan and Lecturettes from the Existential and Person-Centered approaches, write a 1-2 page paper discussing the counselor's use of these therapies in the sessions with Stan. Conclude with how the usage of these therapies will be purposeful in your counseling. Consider who, when, where and how you migh

Types of Observations

1. As an administrator, How do you determine what to look for when doing a classroom observation? 2. What are the differences between formative, summative, and continuous observations? 3. As a supervisor, you are observing a new teacher who is about to give a math manipulative lesson in an elementary school classroom using c

Assessment Tools for Immediate Feedback

I need to gather various assessment instructions that I or a colleague have used in the classroom. I need to select three examples that I think represent both effective and ineffective assessment practices. I have to justify my analysis and offer suggestions in a 700-1050-word paper plus include a 10-12 slide PowerPoint presenta

ADDIE Model and HPT Model

What is the difference between summative evaluation in the ADDIE model and in the Human Performance Technology (HPT) model? Explain the difference in summative evaluation in the ADDIE Model and the human performance technology HPT Model.

Assessment Pan

Need to describe the purpose and learning outcome of gaining some knowledge or skill. Also I need to identify a task where the learners will be able to demonstrate the skill they have gained.

Marks and Marking Systems Reflection

What do the authors mean when they say that "it's all too tempting to use marks as vehicles to reach, or try to ready, other ends" (Kubiszyn & Boich, 2013, pg.244) Agree, why or why not? What types of "ends" do you think educators might try to reach through marks, other than assessing learning?

Instruction and Assessment

If an assessment detracts from your instruction time, what would you change? The results of standardized testing provides limited practical instructional information, why?

List pros and cons for Gates Reading Tests.

You are a member of a committee in your district. What criteria would you use to select a formal assessment to be used district wide? I also need help with listing the pros and cons for Gates Reading Tests.

How should assessments be carried out?

As a teacher, can you help me explain such questions as: a. How should assessments be carried out? b. What are their purpose(s)? c. Is one type of assessment better than another type? d. Is standardized assessment overused or underused in schools? Please cite any references used in APA format. Thanks for getting m

Results of Standardized Testing

What changes can the teacher make when assessments takes time away from instruction? Why does the result of standardized testing provide little practical information for instruction?

Norm- and criterion-related assessments must be used in both types of evaluation, summative and formative. Criterion referenced refers to how our student measures up to some standard which is set by an outside source. For example, a criterion would be to be able to jump a certain height, or to read a certain set of words. which is probably not true in the case of an mentally retarded or MR student. Maybe one criterion would be that the student be able to name his/her colors by a certain time, or to make sound/symbol connections with letters, or be able to name his/her letters. What are the advantages and disadvantages of norm- and criterion-related assessments and formative and summative evaluations? The advantage of a norm-referenced test is that it shows us how our student is doing related to other students across the country. A disadvantage is that they are standardized and do not show small increments of gain. They are good for using for placement at the beginning and then again four or six months later, or at the end of the year. This will show growth over the period of the time. Some authors will say that standardized tests are biased. Norm-referenced tests are by definition standardized - that is to say they are tests which compare students against their cohorts, other students like them. They show where students would fit on the bell-shaped curve. Students near the lower tail, the left hand side of the curve are placed as mentally retarded (MR). I personally like using norm-referenced tests periodically just to show the growth of my students. It can't be for grading. One must remember we can't expect great growth, if any, from our MR students over short periods of times. The definition of retarded is "slowed." That means that the growth of our students is slowed, but in most cases, for many things, not stopped. Criterion-related tests are nice because we can see just what our student accomplished. So now, after three months, s/he can recognize 35 more words, or maybe 65 more words than s/he could before. The student can name all the colors. The student is now putting away toys where they belong where before s/he either would not or could not. Both of these types of tests are used as both formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is ongoing assessment while summative evaluation is assessment that we do after a certain targetted period of instructional time. Remember that all assessment should be used to drive instruction. Assessment should always be ongoing, from the most informal observation to the most formal criterion- and norm-referenced tests. Data gathered is used in an endless loop, whereby assessment information is used to adjust instruction. This is true for all students, not only for the mentally retarded. This solution also gives the students instructions and ideas on how to use his/her notes, homework, texts and other course materials to specifically prepare to compare, within the context of the course, norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests and to show their relative suitability for mentally retarded students.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of norm- and criterion-related assessments and formative and summative evaluations? "When the cook tastes the soup, that's formative; when the guests taste the soup, that's summative." Norm- and criterion-related assessments MUST be used in both types of evaluation. Criterion r

Testing Assessment and Measurement : Education

Give a description of a significant ethical, legal, and socio-cultural fact on each one relating to tests and measurement in counseling and explain why they are significant? Testing and Measurements: Standardized testing is necessary to make sure that all students are applying to college and graduate school programs on merit.

Standardized State Assessments

What is your opinion of high-stakes assessments such as standardized state assessments? Do they help to improve learning?