Athens and Sparta were the two leading powers in the Ancient Greece. Most of the ancient Greek city states were allied with either Athens or Sparta. The Persian wars and the formation of Delian League transformed Athens into a powerful nation. Spartans feared that Athens who headed the League would challenge the Spartan leadership in the Greek world. The imperialistic attitude of the Athens led to the Peloponnesian war. Economic reasons for the war were the trade relations of Athens with other Greek city states. Athens wanted to monopolize the trade. The final example of trade war can be seen in the Megarrian decree. The nature of the Athenian and Spartan society were considered as one reason for war. Philip II, the father of Alexander, the great came to the throne of Macedonia at a difficult time. He faced the internal and external threats by following the policy of diplomacy. Philip II strengthened the Macedonian army by reorganizing it. Philip II strengthened himself my making series of marriage alliances. He followed a policy of divide and rule. He threatened Persian Empire with an invasion but in the meantime, he was assassinated. The death of Philip II caused many insurrections in northern and southern Greece. Alexander crushed those insurrections hoping that it would not be repeated. Soon another major revolt broke out and spread to all parts of Greece. Alexander crushed and burned Thebes. After crushing the opposition in Greece, Alexander set out to conquer the whole of Asia. Major battles of Alexander, the great were the battles of Granicus, Gordium, and Issus. Other victories were the conquests of Tyre and Gaza, Egypt, Gaugamela, and India. Alexander built the city of Alexandria on the bank of the city of river Nile. It later became a major economic and cultural center. It helped spread Greek culture to the east. Alexander tried to create a fusion of Greek and Persian culture by imitating some aspects of Persian culture. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the empire was divided into four kingdoms and the successor kings refused to follow the foot steps of Alexander. They had placed Greeks in positions of power in their respective regions and it helped the spread of Greek culture. At the same time, they allowed natives to follow their culture and religion. The Greek literature spread in Persian regions as a consequence of the spread of Greek language. The library at Alexandria became a center of learning and literature. Greek influence was also seen in coinage too. In the same way, Greek culture influenced the Middle East and the ideas of the east spread to the west. When Alexander broke the political barrier, the trade also flourished. The common culture Alexander created led to the development of western civilization and spread of Christianity.
The dream of forming a Pan-Hellenic Empire by Athens was shattered by the rivalry of Athens and Sparta. Athens and Sparta were the two leading powers in the Ancient Greece. Most of the ancient Greek city states were allied with either Athens or Sparta. The end result of suspicion and rivalry between the two super powers led to