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Bonding is the process of forming chemical bonds due to the attractive interactions of different atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different properties and behaviors of the outermost electrons of individual atoms, or valence electrons. The bond itself is caused by the electrostatic attraction between opposite charges; and the formation of the different types of bonds depends mainly on the strength of this attractive force.

The basics of bonding involve the electrostatic force of attraction between a negative charge (or partial negative charge) to a positive charge (or partial positive charge). Such bonds, can either be covalent or ionic, and these attractive interactions help these atoms form molecules, and larger structures such as compounds. Double and triple covalent bonds can also be formed, depending on the number of electrons being shared between the two bonding atoms.

The three-dimensional bonds in these larger structures, can be represented by a “-“ in a molecular formula. For example, for ethanol with chemical formula C2H5OH, bonds between the core functional groups can be depicted as CH3-CH2-OH. Furthermore, if a double bond is present, meaning two electrons are being shared, such as in ethene with chemical formula, C2H4, the double bond can be represented as H2C=CH2.

In addition, weaker bonds exist between molecules, and these are known as intermolecular bonds. These arise due to weaker electrostatic forces, usually caused by a minor difference in electronegativity. An example of this type of bond is the hydrogen bond which arises due to a difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and elements such as fluorine, nitrogen, and oxygen. These hydrogen bonds are highly prevalent in compounds such as water, with a chemical formula of H2O.

Thus, understanding the concept of chemical bonding, in terms of why atoms bond, how they bond and the three-dimensional structures which result, is integral for every branch of chemistry.

Categories within Bonding


Postings: 23

Chemical Structure describes both the molecular geometry and the chemical bonds which link individual atoms together.

TiO2 Monolayer/Adsorption

In the article below, hydrated TiO2 surfaces are depicted. How can I determine (i.e. identify) a monolayer of (001) and (101) TiO2 in figure 1, and is "(1/3) ML" described in figure 1d referring to the coverage, the TiO2, or what? How does one determine a monolayer in general? How is the monolayer of (101) and (001) deter

Melting Point - Chemistry Experiment

Write a simplified report of melting point experiment just title, result, discussion and calculation. Below is the data: Solid Sample Temperature Starting melt end melting A 113 124 B 117 127 C

Bio-inorganic questions

1. Siderophores and related synthetic analogues can be used in the treatment of patients, such as those with thalassemia, suffering from iron overload. The structure of one such potential ligand (1) is shown below: Please see the attached document for the diagram. (a) Identify the chelating group present in this molecule

Density of Solids and Liquids

Please show all work. 1-When calculating the density of your regularly shaped object, which measurement will limit your final result? 2-If when calculating the density of an object using Archimedes' Principle, you splash a few milliliters of water out of the graduated cylinder upon putting the object in the cylinder, how

Unknown Gases: Hydrohalic Acids

You have two unknown gases that are hydrohalic acids (i.e., HF, HCl, HBr, and HI). You don't know which is which. So, you decided to do an experiment. This experiment involves a ten meter, exactly, long glass cylinder that can be evacuated. At one end of the glass cylinder is a compartment, which has a small hole so that the g

Uranium (III) Flouride and Uranium (VI) Flouride

In the 1940's, when the United States was working on the atomic bomb, it was important to enrich the uranium that would be used. Uranium is a relatively heavy element (238.029 g/mol). Compounds formed from the reaction of a metal with a nonmetal (i.e., salts) generally have relatively high melting points and are nonmalleable.

Consistent with the electronic structure of NO

Q72 a)The Nitric oxide molecule, NO, readily loses one electron to form the NO^+ ion. Why is this consistent with the electronic structure of NO? B) predict the order of the N-O bond strengths in NO, NO^+ and NO^- and describe the magnetic properties of each. c) with what neutral homonuclear diatomic molecules are the NO+ and N

Chemistry Questions: Types of Compounds and Stoichiometry Problems

Need help with the attached 10 chemistry questions. Please refer to attachment for full questions. 1. Indicate whether each of the following is true or false: A. C4H10 is an unsaturated compound. B. A mole of CH4 and a mole of CO2 have the same weight. C. A mole of CCl4 contains 4 moles of Cl D. Water is a nonpola

Chemistry Questions: Lewis Formulas

I am having trouble understanding these questions and would appreciate if you could please help me and show whatever work to better help me understand. Please refer to the attachment for original questions: 1. A step in determining Lewis formulas of covalent species is to find the total number of electrons that are used

Molecular Interactions in Water

Please provide detailed explanations for the following questions regarding water molecules. What type of covalent bonds does the water molecule present (polar or non-polar bonds) and why? What type of intermolecular interactions occurs with these molecules? Why you think the boiling point of water is high?

Saturated hydrocarbons

Saturated hydrocarbons are not as chemically reactive as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Which of the following is a saturated hydrocarbon? Answer A.CH2=CH-CH=CH2 B.CH3-CH2-C=CH C.CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 D.CH3-CH=CH-CH3

Bio Fuels Production

Why do some scientists have concerns have regarding further increases in bio fuel production. giving chemical reasons explain why is is expensive to manufacture ethanol from cellulose than starch derived from maize (drawing parallels with the structure, bonding and breakdown of polysaccharides in animals).

Geometries and Bond Angles

Draw the Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions, and predict their electron-domain and molecular geometries. 1) PF3 what is PF3's electron-domain geometry? Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral what is PF3's molecular geometry? Linear Bent Trigona

Molecular Geometry of Negative Ion

1. What is the molecular geometry of the IO3 (negative) ion? 2. 5.00g of Mg(solid) was reacted completely with S(solid) to form MgS(solid) and 71.2 kj of heat was evolved.  What is the molar enthalpy of formation of MgS(solid)? Answer in kj/mol to 3 sig figs. 3. Calculate the uncertainty in the position of an electron if

Structural Formula Problems

Assistance with questions Select the correct structural formula for 4-ethyl1-1,5heptadiene A). ch2=ch-ch2-ch ch=ch-ch3 Ch3 B) ch3=ch-ch2-ch-ch=ch-ch3 C2h5 c) ch2=ch-ch2-ch=ch-ch2-ch3 c2h5 2 structural formula for 1,1,3-triethylcyclohexane 3 structural formul

calculate ΔH°rxn from equations of reactions

In the 1980s, there was an international agreement to destroy all stockpiles of mustard gas, ClCH2CH2SCH2CH2Cl. When this substance contacts the moisture in eyes, nasal passages, and skin, the −OH groups of water replace the Cl atoms and create high local concentrations of hydrochloric acid, which cause severe blistering a

Molecular Geometry and Polarity

Match these items ___CH4 a. linear ___PCl3 b. pyramidal ___BeBr2 c.tetrahedral ___H2O d.bent ___BF3 e.planar triangular Which molecule would most likkely be nonpolar? a. I

Elements and Compounds

1. Compare the properties of elements and compounds. Give two examples of each, including one example that exists in the human body. Explain the atomic nature of one element and one compound found in human body 2. A freshman is currently enjoying the Arts Studio program she is pursuing at a well-known university. In her fr

Chlorine and Halogens

See the attached file. Which of the following free halogens CANNOT be prepared by the electrolysis of water solution of its salt? A) F2 B) Cl2 C) Br2 D) I2 E) At2 Which one of the following has the smallest atomic radius? A) Li B) Cs C) F D) Na E) Cl Which of the following nonmetal oxides is paired with the

Can I have assistance so I can check my answers.

I have Red blood cells are placed into pure water. Which of the following statements is true? A) water molecules flow out of the red blood cells, causing them to collapse B) water flows into the red blood cells, causing them to swell and burst C) the osmotic pressure of the cell contents increases, causing the cells to b

Bonding, Lewis Structures and Molecular Geometry

Consider the following elements and arrange them in order of increasing number of electrons depicted in electron dot symbols. Which one occupies the intermediate position in the series? P, Se, Si, I and B A. P B. B C. Si D. I Consider the following elements and select the one which has the smallest number of electrons

3 questions on vapor pressure, volatility, and H-bonding

Answer and explain 1) As the volatility of a liquid increases, its equilibrium vapor pressure? A) increases B) decreases C) remains the same 2) Which substance contains molecules that will not form hydrogen bonds? A) hydrogen B) hydrogen fluoride C) water D) ammonia 3) At what temp would CO2 gas be most soluble?

Chemistry: Measurment, Conversions, Chemical and Physical Properties

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1. If a muscle tissue sample is 125 microns thick, what is the thickness in inches? (Given: 1 micron = 3.94 x 10^-5 inches) 3. If a patient is injected with 0.500 L of I.V. liquid, what is the volume in quarts? (Given: 1 quart = 0.946 L) 5. BONUS (4 pts): Exha

Nomenclature, Molecular Shapes and Bond Polarity

Please see the attached file for the complete problems. Problem 4.100. Select the more polar bond in each of the following pairs. Part A: C-C or C-O Part B: P-Br or P-Cl Part C: Si-S or Si-Cl Part D: F-Cl or F-Br Part E: P-O or P-S Problem 4.104 Classify each of the following bonds as nonpolar covalent,

Nomenclature and Bond Polarity

Please see the attached file for the complete problems. Problem 4.36.Write the correct formula for the following compounds. Part A. aluminum chlorate Part B. ammonium oxide Part C. magnesium bicarbonate Part D. sodium nitrite Part E. copper(I) sulfate Problem 4.40. State the number of valence electrons,

General High School Chemistry Questions

### Please refer to the actual attached document as everything is properly formatted and easier to see in the document. ### 1. For each of the following situations, identify those for which a reaction is likely to occur. For those that do occur, write a net ionic equation. a) A solution of lead(ll) nitrate mixed with a solut


Please see the attached file. 1. Answer the following problems about gases. a) The average atomic mass of naturally occurring neon is 20.18 amu. There are two common isotopes of naturally occurring Neon as indicated in the table below. (i) Using the information above, calculate the percent abundance of each isotope. (ii)