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Bonding is the process of forming chemical bonds due to the attractive interactions of different atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different properties and behaviors of the outermost electrons of individual atoms, or valence electrons. The bond itself is caused by the electrostatic attraction between opposite charges; and the formation of the different types of bonds depends mainly on the strength of this attractive force.

The basics of bonding involve the electrostatic force of attraction between a negative charge (or partial negative charge) to a positive charge (or partial positive charge). Such bonds, can either be covalent or ionic, and these attractive interactions help these atoms form molecules, and larger structures such as compounds. Double and triple covalent bonds can also be formed, depending on the number of electrons being shared between the two bonding atoms.

The three-dimensional bonds in these larger structures, can be represented by a “-“ in a molecular formula. For example, for ethanol with chemical formula C2H5OH, bonds between the core functional groups can be depicted as CH3-CH2-OH. Furthermore, if a double bond is present, meaning two electrons are being shared, such as in ethene with chemical formula, C2H4, the double bond can be represented as H2C=CH2.

In addition, weaker bonds exist between molecules, and these are known as intermolecular bonds. These arise due to weaker electrostatic forces, usually caused by a minor difference in electronegativity. An example of this type of bond is the hydrogen bond which arises due to a difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and elements such as fluorine, nitrogen, and oxygen. These hydrogen bonds are highly prevalent in compounds such as water, with a chemical formula of H2O.

Thus, understanding the concept of chemical bonding, in terms of why atoms bond, how they bond and the three-dimensional structures which result, is integral for every branch of chemistry.

Categories within Bonding


Postings: 23

Chemical Structure describes both the molecular geometry and the chemical bonds which link individual atoms together.

TiO2 Monolayer/Adsorption

In the article below, hydrated TiO2 surfaces are depicted. How can I determine (i.e. identify) a monolayer of (001) and (101) TiO2 in figure 1, and is "(1/3) ML" described in figure 1d referring to the coverage, the TiO2, or what? How does one determine a monolayer in general? How is the monolayer of (101) and (001) deter

Charge Neutrality in Solids

What is the origin (e.g. physical, thermodynamic, etc.) of the charge neutrality requirement in solids? Why must solids have charge neutrality in the bulk, yet a surface can be charged? Why can't the bulk have a net charge?

Melting Point - Chemistry Experiment

Write a simplified report of melting point experiment just title, result, discussion and calculation. Below is the data: Solid Sample Temperature Starting melt end melting A 113 124 B 117 127 C

Coordination Complex of Cr

Question#1 Please give the answer and explain how to find the following. For [Cr(NH3)2(en)2]Cl3 a) give the oxidation number b) give the coordination number of Cr Question#2 Give the formula of the compound. calcium triaquabromodicyanoferrate(II) Question # 3 An atom in a certain compound uses sp^2 hybri

Bio-inorganic questions

1. Siderophores and related synthetic analogues can be used in the treatment of patients, such as those with thalassemia, suffering from iron overload. The structure of one such potential ligand (1) is shown below: Please see the attached document for the diagram. (a) Identify the chelating group present in this molecule

Density of Solids and Liquids

Please show all work. 1-When calculating the density of your regularly shaped object, which measurement will limit your final result? 2-If when calculating the density of an object using Archimedes' Principle, you splash a few milliliters of water out of the graduated cylinder upon putting the object in the cylinder, how

A Linear String of Five Hydrogen Atoms

Consider a linear string of five hydrogen atoms, H^5. (a) Draw the five molecular orbitals of this molecule. Indicate nodes (nodal lines or planes) with dashed lines. Give the total number of nodal planes. Indicate + and - signs of the wave functions within the molecular orbitals. (b) Determine the net overlap for each mol

Molecular Orbitals

Draw the molecular orbital diagram for the following molecules or ions. 1. (C_2)^2- 2. (O_2)^2+ What is the electron configurations of these molecules or ions? What is the bond order for each? Identify HOMO and LUMO for each.

Unknown Gases: Hydrohalic Acids

You have two unknown gases that are hydrohalic acids (i.e., HF, HCl, HBr, and HI). You don't know which is which. So, you decided to do an experiment. This experiment involves a ten meter, exactly, long glass cylinder that can be evacuated. At one end of the glass cylinder is a compartment, which has a small hole so that the g

Carbon Compounds and Acidic Hydrogens

You have two carbon containing compounds, nitromethane (CH3NO2) and chloromethane (CH3Cl). The eletronegativities of chlorine and nitrogen are very similar. Even though hydrogens bonded to carbon generally are not very acidic (i.e., pKa's are generally in the 50's), when there are electronegative elements, such as fluorine, chlo

Explaining a Molecule's Physical Properties

It is important to know if a particular molecule is composed of elements with different electronegativities as well as the structure of the particular molecule to explain the physical properties (such as boiling/melting point, solubility, etc.) of the molecule. Fully explain why you need to know both the electronegativity of ea

Ideal Bond Angle of Cyanamide

In the attached picture, predict the ideal bond angle(s) around each central atom in the molecule. Hint: Ignore the angles shown in the 2-dimensional Lewis structure and instead, consider what shape the molecule would have in three dimensions. (Ignore any resonance effects.)

Ranking Compounds by Expected Melting Points

The changes of the ions in an ionic compound affect the strength of the electrostatic attraction holding that compound together. Based on ion charges, rank these ionic compounds by their expected melting points. Highest melting point Lowest melting point SrS, RbCI, SrCI_2 Hint: The compound with the greatest attr

Uranium (III) Flouride and Uranium (VI) Flouride

In the 1940's, when the United States was working on the atomic bomb, it was important to enrich the uranium that would be used. Uranium is a relatively heavy element (238.029 g/mol). Compounds formed from the reaction of a metal with a nonmetal (i.e., salts) generally have relatively high melting points and are nonmalleable.

Organic Chemistry Structures

1. Identify the type of bond between N-F and show the polarity by using the delta and dipole moment symbols. 2. Draw the Kekule Line Bond and Lewis Electron Dot structures for C5H8BrNO3. 3. Draw a resonance structure for the acetone anion and calculate the formal charges... O CH 3C O for both oxygens in the draw

Relativistic Effects on Gold

Explain why relativistic effects can cause gold to have both (a) a lower oxidation number than either Ag or Cu (-1 in CsAu) and (b) a higher oxidation number than either Ag or Cu (+5 in AuF5 and +7 in AuF7)

Consistent with the electronic structure of NO

Q72 a)The Nitric oxide molecule, NO, readily loses one electron to form the NO^+ ion. Why is this consistent with the electronic structure of NO? B) predict the order of the N-O bond strengths in NO, NO^+ and NO^- and describe the magnetic properties of each. c) with what neutral homonuclear diatomic molecules are the NO+ and N

Chemistry Questions: Types of Compounds and Stoichiometry Problems

Need help with the attached 10 chemistry questions. Please refer to attachment for full questions. 1. Indicate whether each of the following is true or false: A. C4H10 is an unsaturated compound. B. A mole of CH4 and a mole of CO2 have the same weight. C. A mole of CCl4 contains 4 moles of Cl D. Water is a nonpola

Chemistry Questions: Lewis Formulas

I am having trouble understanding these questions and would appreciate if you could please help me and show whatever work to better help me understand. Please refer to the attachment for original questions: 1. A step in determining Lewis formulas of covalent species is to find the total number of electrons that are used

Bond Energies: Enthalpy Change

Dinitrogen monoxide (or nitrous oxide), N_2O(g), can decompose to nitrogen and oxygen gases: 2 N_2O(g) -> 2 N_2(g) + O_2(g) Use average bond energies to estimate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

Molecular Interactions in Water

Please provide detailed explanations for the following questions regarding water molecules. What type of covalent bonds does the water molecule present (polar or non-polar bonds) and why? What type of intermolecular interactions occurs with these molecules? Why you think the boiling point of water is high?

IUPAC numbers

The IUPAC name for halothane is 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. As you can tell from the name, it includes several different halogens (fluorine, bromine and chlorine) attached to an alkane backbone (ethane). Now that you've opened up the issue of IUPAC names, can you explain for me what each one of the pieces of the I

Saturated hydrocarbons

Saturated hydrocarbons are not as chemically reactive as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Which of the following is a saturated hydrocarbon? Answer A.CH2=CH-CH=CH2 B.CH3-CH2-C=CH C.CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 D.CH3-CH=CH-CH3

Hydrocarbons and Carbon-Carbon Bonds

Which of the following statements is FALSE? Answer A. All hydrocarbons are broadly divided into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. B. The alkanes are hydrocarbons having only carbon-carbon single bonds. C. Hydrocarbons possessing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds are called alkynes. D. Methane is a good ex

Molecular geometry of atoms

I have this question: Draw the Lewis dot structures of the following molecules and then predict their geometry. Indicate molecular geometry of the atoms and the position of lone pairs. a. BeF2 b. BF3 c. CH 4 d. NH3 e. H2O I am OK with the Lewis dot structures part, but what does "the indicate molecular geometry of t

Which of following statements concerning ATP is false?

Which of following statements concerning ATP is false? a. it is nucleotide b. it is called the energy currency of the cell c. it contains phosphate groups joined in a series d. it stores energy for long periods e. it contains phosphate groups joined by unstable bonds


Would you help me with the following problem? A freshman is currently enjoying the Arts Studio program she is pursuing at a well-known university. In her free time, she likes to skate, take salsa dance lessons, and cook. She particularly enjoys pickling and decides to pickle olives over a leisurely weekend. According to the r

Bio Fuels Production

Why do some scientists have concerns have regarding further increases in bio fuel production. giving chemical reasons explain why is is expensive to manufacture ethanol from cellulose than starch derived from maize (drawing parallels with the structure, bonding and breakdown of polysaccharides in animals).