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    Relativistic Effects on Gold

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    Explain why relativistic effects can cause gold to have both (a) a lower oxidation number than either Ag or Cu (-1 in CsAu) and (b) a higher oxidation number than either Ag or Cu (+5 in AuF5 and +7 in AuF7)

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    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/bonding/relativistic-effects-gold-501654

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    Relativistic effects result in electrons being closer to the nucleus in the heavier elements. Because of the stronger attraction to the nucleus, these electrons are more difficult to remove compared to ...

    Solution Summary

    The expert explains why relativistic effects can cause gold to have both a lower oxidation number than either Ag or Cu and have a higher oxidation numbers than Ag or Cu.

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