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# Acids and Bases

### Lewis, Bronsted, Arrhenius theories of acids and bases and pH indicators or meters

1. The differences in Arrhenius, Lowry-Bronsted, and Lewis theories of acids and bases are important in recognizing where they are applied. Where are each of these theories applied in Chemistry? 2.pH is the controlled process of digestion, bleaching, creating of pulp to manufacture of finished paper products. How do they mea

### Conductivity of acetic acid KCl solutions

The conductivity of a 0.1 moldm^-3 solution of potassium chloride at298K was found to be 1.1639 x 10^-2 Scm^-1. In a separate experiment at 298K the resistance of a 0.1 moldm^-3 solution of ethanoic acid was determined as 300 ohms and the resistance of the potassium chloride solution was fond to be 33.21 ohms. Given that the spe

### Calculating amount of H3PO4 to reduce pH of wastewater

Wastewater flow is 1.5 million gallons per day. The pH of the incoming wastewater is 5.2 The desire is to use 30% H3PO4 to reduce the pH of the wastewater to pH 2.5. How would I calculate the amount of 30% H3PO4 needed to accomplish this pH change for the 1.5 MGD wastewater flow??? Please show me your calculations.

### Chemistry and Blood pH

Maintaining blood pH: the role and control of CO2 in blood buffering. Maintenance of blood pH is critical to life. Slight fluctuations of pH result in conditions of acidosis or alkalosis. The carbonate buffer system is a key factor in controlling the pH. In this assignment you are to combine several key concepts in explaining

### The pH's of Eight 0.1 M Aqueous Salt Solutions

The pH's of eight 0.1 M aqueous salt solutions are given below. Write the hydrolysis equation(s) for each. (Several will have more than one equation). If no hydrolysis reaction takes place,write N.R. Salt Solution pH a) Sodium Acetate 9 b) Sodium Carbonate 11 c) Ammonium Chloride 5

### Amount of NaOH needed to Raise the pH of a Solution

A 2 part question ---- and the 2 parts are not inter-related: 1) I need to calculate the amount of NaOH (pH = 13.0) needed to raise the pH of a 3402 m3/minute wastewater flow from a pH of 4.3 to: a) a pH of 6.0 b) and/or pH of 7.0 2) I cannot find anywhere a vapor pressure for CO2 in water at higher temperatures....I

### Freezing point of naphthalene and benzene mixture

How many grams of naphthalene, C10H8, would you add to 49.5 g of benzene, C6H6 (l), to produce a solution that has the same freezing point as pure water? (Use the data from the table as needed.) Molal Freezing Point Depression and Molal Boiling Point Elevation Constants: Solvent Normal Freezing K(fr) Normal

### Calculations with Acids and Bases

I) Which one of these is the solute and which one is the solvent in a solution composed of i) 25.0 g of silver in 5.0 g of mercury, and ii) 3.0 g of iodine (I2) in 100.0 mL of ethanol? ii) What is it that makes water such a good solvent for polar substances? Why is it called the universal solvent? iii) What is the mass pe

### What is the concentration of Fe2+ (mol/L) in equilibrium with Fe(OH)3 ?

At pH 6.00 and pE 2.50, what is the concentration of Fe2+ (mol/L) in equilibrium with Fe(OH)3? Hint: Use the Nernst equation and the Ksp for the solubility of solid iron (III) hydroxide. Note: I have already used the solution library examples and have come up with these wrong answers: 1.36e-3, 3.5e-3, 2.6645e-4, 2.9e-4, 5.495

### Resulting pH

I am trying to figure this out but I don't have an measurement for water. Does that matter? Also, can I use the henderson hasselbalch equation to solve this? I need help with the setup of this problem. Thank you. In manufacturing a fruit drink, citric acid is added to water in the amount of 0.1 mol/L. What is the pH of the re

### Modeling the number of homes built over a period of time as an exponential function and logarithmic formula describing the PH of a substance.

Part 1: Suppose that the number of new homes built, H, in a city over a period of time, t, is graphed on a rectangular coordinate system where time is on the horizontal axis. Suppose that the number of homes built can be modeled by an exponential function, H= p * at , where p is the number of new homes built in the first year

### Carbonate System:Calculate the amount of calcium carbonate dissolved per liter of rainwater

Please do a step by step answer so I can see where I went wrong. The average pH of precipitation in rural areas is 6.00. Assuming that the pH is controlled by the carbonate system, i.e., no anthropogenic acid gases are present in the atmosphere, calculate the amount of calcium carbonate (mg) dissolved per liter of rainwater.

### The average pH of precipitation in rural areas is 5.70. calculate the amount of calcium carbonate (mg) dissolved per liter of rainwater.

Could you please explain what formula and step are invovled and please provide (example) if possible? The average pH of precipitation in rural areas is 5.70. Assuming that the pH is controlled by the carbonate system, i.e., no anthropogenic acid gases are present in the atmosphere, calculate the amount of calcium carbonate (m

### An Estuarine Water Sample

An analytical chemist determines that an Estuarine water sample contains 1.5 g/L of sulfate ion. What is the concentration in terms of: (a) g/L of S (b) molar concentration of sulfate (c) normality (d) parts per million of sulfate Could you please explain what formula and step are involved and please provide (example)

### pH of Resulting Solution

In manufacturing a fruit drink, citric acid is added to water in the amount of 0.1 mol/L. What is the pH of the resulting solution? Could you please explain what formula and step are involved and please provide (example) problem

### In this continuous process, "phosphoric acid and ammonia are mixed, and a non-hazardous product, diammonium phosphate (DAP) results if the reaction of ammonia is complete.

Attached is a very simple process flow diagram. In this continuous process, "phosphoric acid and ammonia are mixed, and a non-hazardous product, diammonium phosphate (DAP) results if the reaction of ammonia is complete. If the proportion of phosphoric acid is reduced, the reaction is incomplete, and ammonia is evolved. Reduction

### Calculation of pH given Molarity

I desperately need help with the following problems: Calculate the pH of the following solutions: a. a solution in which the H3O is 6.0 times 10 to the negative 6. b. 0.030 M of HI (aq) I need a step by step solution.

### Calculate the molarity and pH of the solution

Mass of solute is given followed by the total volume of solution prepared. Calculate the molarity. a. 1.37 g of NaOH; 125 ml b. 4.29 g of Kl; 250. ml c. 2.95 mg of Pb(NO3)2; 4.95 ml d. 0.997 kg of NaNO3; 125 L What mass of the indicated solute does each of the following solutions contain. a. 2.50 L of 13.1 M HCl solutio

### Zinc Borate in Treatment of Wastewater

Can you please take a look at the attached and give me some feedback. I want to understand why specifically pH is driven way low and then way high to promote precipitation of the zinc solids. Please take a look and comment. In our process, zinc borate (2ZnO-3H3BO3-3H2O) ultimately splits and dissociates to zinc oxide and b

### Solubility of Zinc Oxide, Boric Acid, and Aluminum Sulfate

Hope you can help....I've always struggled calculating solubilities of compounds at different pH's. I have 3 separate but related questions: 1) 1000 g of zinc oxide is added to a 1 liter container of pH neutral water (pH 7.0); the solubility of the ZnO is given as .29 g/L at pH 7.0; how much more ZnO would dissolve if the pH

### What is the pH of a solution of 0.49 M acid and 0.29 M of its conjugate base if the ionization constant is 5.92 x 10-8?

1) What is the pH of a solution of 0.49 M acid and 0.29 M of its conjugate base if the ionization constant is 5.92 x 10-8? A. 7.72 B. 7.98 C. 7.46 D. 8.21 E. 7.00 2) What is the pH of a solution of 0.81 M acid and 0.35 M of its conjugate base if the ionization constant is 5.45 x 10-8? A. 7.33 B. 6.42 C. 7.63 D.

### Separating Sodium Carbonate, Chloride and Sulphate

Assuming an imaginary mixture of sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and sodium sulphate I need to know what test to use to 1st confirm the the compostion and 2nd to find the percentage composition mixture. I need to know which test would be useful and the calaulations needed so I can preform the in the lab.

### 'What Salt will Form', Precipitation and Reaction Type Problems

When each of the following strong acid/strong base reactions take place. What salt would form with these and how would you find out. HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) --> RbOH (aq) + HNO (aq) --> HClO4 (aq) + NaOH (aq) --> HBr (aq) + CsOH (aq) --> How to Balance the following equations that describe combustion reactions. C2H6 (

### Determine the molar mass of an unknown acid.

Please see attached file for full problem description. 1. Determine the molar mass of an unknown acid. Called the unknown acid HX, and it reacts with NaOH. Equation is: NaOH(aq)+HX(aq) --> NaX(aq)+H2O(l) 1 mole of NaOH reacts with 1 mole of HX. Weighed a sample of HX is titrated with standard NaOH. Weigh the vial contai

### Prediction of Changes to DeltaG in a Non-Standard Cell

-438 kJ/mol is the free energy change of lactate oxidation by Fe3+ under non-standard conditions assuming that: C3H5O3- + 12 Fe3+ + 3 H2O -----> 3 CO2 + 11 H+ + 12 Fe2+ [Fe2+]=10^-4 M pH=7 T=25 degree centigrade [lactate]=10^-3 M Carbon dioxide is in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 Fe3+ is in equilibrium with

### Free Energies of Reaction from Reduction Potentials: Oxidation of Lactate with Fe3+ (ferric ion).

A)Under standard conditions , will the oxidation of lactate using Fe3+ as electron acceptor prove energetically favorable? What is the change in free energy associated with the complete oxidation of lactate to carbon dioxide by Fe3+? (Assume reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+) Given information pe0=-0.68 (My knowledge about this is: p

### A Selection of Net Ionic Equation from Reaction Problems

Can you please assist me in understanding what the name of the products and the net ionic equations are for the following mixtures? -ammonia poured into aluminum nitrate -barium chloride poured into sodium sulfate -copper(II) chloride poured into sodium carbonate -lead(II) nitrate poured into potassium iodide -m

### Alka-Seltzer Reactions

The fizz produced when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dissolved in water is due to the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid 3 NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 --> 3 CO2 + 3 H2O + Na3C6H5O7. In a certain experiment 1.20g of sodium bicarbonate and 1.20g of citric acid are allowed to react. Which is the limiting reactant?

### Products and Equilibria of Reaction of Alum with Carbonates

If we were to add sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate to separate samples of Al2(SO4)3, what would the reaction/equilibrium equations look like? What are the pKa values of Na2SO4 and CaSO4 ---- even though they are salts, would they continue to add at least in part to the acidity of the solution?

### Which is the best base to use to neutralize formic acid: sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate?

A) Balance the following equations. b) Determine the by-products of each reaction. c) Select the most preferred base to use in balancing the equation. d) Quote the pKb for each base used. The preference for the ultimately selected base is to be determined by: a) which would be the safest base to handle, b) which produce