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Lewis, Bronsted, Arrhenius theories of acids and bases and pH indicators or meters

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1. The differences in Arrhenius, Lowry-Bronsted, and Lewis theories of acids and bases are important in recognizing where they are applied. Where are each of these theories applied in Chemistry?

2.pH is the controlled process of digestion, bleaching, creating of pulp to manufacture of finished paper products. How do they measure the pH in each of these three processes? Do they use pH indicators or pH meters? What would be the reason for their choices?

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Solution Summary

Details three different definitions of acids and bases. Goes on to explain the application of each in chemistry.

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1. As history went along different scientist tried to explain the differences between acids and bases and the theories surrounding them. Each theory was profound for it's time and each has a certain use in a given situation. From the medical and biological perspective, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is easy to understand and encompasses all the biological acids and bases encountered in aqueous solutions. It is the preferred approach.(CO2 is not strictly an acid in the Bronsted-Lowry system as it has no hydrogen ion but it can be accommodated by considering carbonic acid ( H2CO3 ) as the acid.)

In reality, most physicians have a basic knowledge of acids and bases which is somewhat of an combination of the Arrhenius approach (acid: H+ in solution), the Bronsted-Lowry approach (acid = proton donor) and even the Lewis approach (eg CO2 as an acid).

Below is a more detailed description of each theory:

The Arrhenius Theory

The first modern approach to ...

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