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    Organic Chemistry: Acids and Bases and Bases

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    1. Define and describe the properties of Bronsed conjugate acid base pairs and how they relate to the pH scale?

    2. Calculate the pH or pOH values for a given ion concentration.

    3. Differentiate between strong and weak acids and bases and calculate the ion concentrations for weak acids and bases given an equilibrium constant and balanced equation.

    4. Recognize the ionization of diprotic and polyprotic acids and its dependence on multiple Ka values.

    5. Define Lewis acids and bases and indicate the basic formulas associated with hydrohaulic, oxoacids, and carboxylic acids.

    6. Why do you think there are multiple acid base types (Lewis, Bronsted, Arrhenius)? Are there particular contexts where one description might be more relevant than another? Explain your answer.

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    Solution Preview

    1. The Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory defines an acid as a proton (H+) donor, and a base as a proton acceptor, in a chemical reaction. Protons are represented by the symbol H+, and in representing acids and bases, the symbols HA and A-, respectively, are used. These symbols indicate that an acid has a proton it is ready to give away, while a base, with its negative charge, is ready to receive the positively charged proton.

    Though chemists apply the sophisticated structural definitions for acids and bases, there are ways to define a particular substance as an acid or base. Mainly the pH scale (0-14). A rating of 0 on the pH scale indicates a substance that is virtually pure acid, while a 14 rating represents a nearly pure base. A rating of 7 indicates a neutral substance.

    2. The formula is thus pH = -log[H3O+] or -log[H+], and the presence of hydronium ions or protons is measured according to ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses concepts surround acids and bases including diprotic and polyprotic acids, Lewis acids, and the Bronsed conjugate.