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Petroluem Refinery Engineering

Petroleum refining processes are chemical engineering processes which use petroleum refineries to transform crude oil into useful products, such as liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline or petrol kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Petroleum refineries are large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery is unique and has its own arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations.

The primary end-products produced in petroleum refining may be grouped into four categories: light distillates, middle distillates, heavy distillates and others. Light distillates include, light petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, and jet fuel and other aircraft fuel. Middle distillates include automotive and rail-road diesel fuels, residential heating fuel, and other light fuel oils. Heavy distillates include heavy fuel oils, and bunker fuel oil and other residual fuel oils. Other products produced in all petroleum refineries include speciality petroleum naphtha, speciality solvents, petrochemical feed-stocks, asphalt and tar, petroleum coke, lubricating oils, waxes and greases and carbon black.

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NPSH calculations

This submission shows the method to calculate the NPSH (net positive suction head) of the pump connected to the tank. See the attached diagram for system sketch.

Developing system model of liquid flow

Two different cylindrical tanks interconnected by a pipe with a valve. A mathematical model of the process is required to determine the change in height of the fluid in the 2nd tank when the valve is opened. A system time constant is also required. Attached is an example of Mass Balance for one tank.

Conversion of Units and Density

I have attached two problems involving density and unit conversion. Please include a complete explanation and all work in order for me to be able to do similar problems. Thank you for the assistance. A loaded semi-truck consumes about 10 US gallons of diesel per hour (assuming an average speed of 60 mph) and is driven

Australia's Regional Economy

What are the major drivers and forces of Australia's economy, such as major cities, major products and manufacturing locations, where raw materials come from, and transportation networks that have either created corridors or barriers to economic development? Explain the historic impact of social climate, wars, invasions, or p

Flow Rate Calculations

1a / state the formula giving flowrate (qv) in terms of valve flow coefficient, pressure drop across the valve and relative density of fluid. State the units of the variables in the formula. B/ A valve having a flow coefficient (Kv) of 65 operates with oil of relative density 0.85 and a pressure drop of 1.4 bar across the val

Tank Problem

Given the tank as shown with 60cm of crude oil (S,G = 0.86) on top 200cm of water, both at 50 degree C. Barometric (atmospheric) pressure is 760 mmHg (absolute). a) Determine the gage pressure at point A. (kPa (absolute)) b) Determine the absolute pressure at Point A (kPa (absolute)) c) Determine the height (h) of wate

Surface Stress

The upper plate (plate 1) is moving to the right with a velocity V, the middle plate (plate 2) is free to move laterally under the action of the viscous forces applied to it. Assume steady state conditions; derive an equation for the velocity of the middle plate (plate 2). Assume the area of oil contact(Area = .9) is the same fo

Entropy: Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger

A well-insulated, shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used to heat water (Cp = 4.18kJ/kg *degC) in the tubes from 20 degrees C to 70 degrees C at a rate of 4.5kg/s. Heat is supplied by hot oil (Cp = 2.30kJ/kg *degC) that enters the shell side at 170 degrees C at arate of 10kg/s. Disregarding any heat loss from the heat exchanger,

Ligroin as a Solvent

In the experiment, ligroin may be used as a solvent for the separation of the product from biphenyl. (a) What is ligroin? (b) Can you suggest an alternative solvent that might be used in this step?

Tank Pressures and U-Tube

A.) See attachment for diagram. Amounts from left to right, top to bottom are: 500mm, 460mm, S.G.=0.8, S.G.=1.05, 300mm, 300mm and Tank X is water. Calculate difference in pressure between centers of tank X and Y. B.) See attachment for diagram again. Amounts are: Pa=2.7kPa, 0.05m, 20mm, S.G.(Oil)=0.6, S.G.=1.4, 30mm, 10

Pressure Measurement in a Washing Machine

Refer to attachment:Need to rotate the one figure in the acrobat program window or print out to see it better. 1.)Picture of closed container holding water and oil. Air at 34kPA below atmospheric pressure is above the oil. Calculate pressure at the bottom of the container in kPA(gage) 2.)Picture of washing machine. The p

Finding Frictional Resistance

Question: A hydraulic lift of the type commonly used for greasing automobiles consists of a 10,000 in diameter ram that slides in a 10,006 in diameter cylinder (as shown in the attachment), the annular space being filled with oil has a kinematic viscosity of 0.0038 ft^2/sec and a specific gravity of 0.83. If the rate of travel o

Environmental Legislation

1. Based on statutory statements of findings, goals, and intent, what issues does the resource Conservation and Recovery Act address? What does it prohibit? 2. What issues does CERCLA address? What are the major differences between CERCLA and RCRA? 3. For what reasons did congress enact the Emergency Planning Community Rig

Discussion of Environmental Law and Policies

1. Formulate arguments for and against the idea that risk assesment can and should be separated from risk management. 2. Discuss land as a natural resource and how and why it is or should be regulated by environmental laws. 3. Cite and describe the major provisions of the significant legislation affecting federal land-use

Max Pressure of a Tank of Fluid in Motion

A tank 4m long, 3m high, 3m wide is closed except for a small hole at the right top. It contains oil (S=0.83) to a depth of 2m (static). The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 19.62 m/s^2. What is the max pressure intensity in the tank. Please explain in detail.

Question: A discussion of soaps and detergents. The student should highlight the major differences between the two , and respond to the specific questions asked.Answer: Will provide the student with a detailed model answer.

BRAINMASS PROBLEM 9 1) State the difference between a soap, and a detergent? 2) What is the name for the alkaline hydrolysis of an ester? 3) Discuss the solubility of covalent compounds vs ionic compounds in polar and non polar media respectively. 4) Illustrate the mechanism by which soaps and detergents clean fibre

Calculation of the Number of Stages Required

Problem: 60 tons per day of oil-sand (25 mass % oil and 75 mass % sand) is to be extracted with 40 tons per day of naphtha in a counter-current extraction battery. The final extract from the battery is to contain 40 mass % oil and 60 mass % naphtha and the underflow from each unit is expected to consist of 35 mass % solution an