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Question: A discussion of soaps and detergents. The student should highlight the major differences between the two , and respond to the specific questions asked.Answer: Will provide the student with a detailed model answer.

BRAINMASS PROBLEM 9

1) State the difference between a soap, and a detergent?

2) What is the name for the alkaline hydrolysis of an ester?

3) Discuss the solubility of covalent compounds vs ionic compounds in polar and non polar media respectively.

4) Illustrate the mechanism by which soaps and detergents clean fibres.

5) Why does scum form in hard water areas. Why is this a problem, and how can it be overcome?

6) Some detergents are non biodegradable. What common structural features make a detergent non-biodegradable?

7) Which kind of structural features, seen in soaps and some synthetic detergents are readily biodegradable?

Solution Preview

BRAINMASS SOLUTION 9

1) State the difference between a soap, and a detergent?

The raw materials for making a soap are: oil/fat plus sodium or potassium hydroxide. The raw materials for making detergents are from the petroleum refining process.

2) What is the name for the alkaline hydrolysis of an ester?

Saponification

3) Discuss the solubility of covalent compounds vs ionic compounds in polar and non polar media respectively.

Covalent compounds are generally insoluble in polar media and very ...

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