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# Temperature

The temperature of a body is a quantity which indicates how hot or how old the body is. It is a measure of the thermal energy per particle of matter or radiation. It is measured by a thermometer which can be calibrated in various temperature scales.

Temperature is an intensive property. This means it is independent of the amount of material present. It is equal to a differential coefficient of one extensive variable with respect to another for a given body. This is in contrast to energy which is an extensive property where there is a proportional amount of material in the system.

The lowest theoretical temperature is called absolute zero. However, it cannot be achieved in any actual physical device. This temperature is denoted by 0 Kelvin on the Kelvin scale. At this temperature, there are minimal motions of microscopic constituents.

Temperature is important in all fields of natural science. These fields include physics, geology, chemistry, atmospheric science and biology

## Categories within Temperature

### Scales

Postings: 21

Temperature scales are systems used to measure temperature.

### Estimate mathematical relationship between the temperature and time for step Change Response Of Bare Thermocouple

The curve on the attached document shows the response of a bare thermocouple which has been subjected to a step change in temperature from 50 degrees celcius to 10 degrees celcius. Assuming that the bare thermocouple behaves as a single transfer lag system, determine the mathematical relationship between the temperature (T) and

### Microorganisms: water, temperature, pH, and light

Describe the importance of water, pH, temperature, light, and atmospheric gasses to the growth of microorganisms. Microbes need the chemical requirement in order for them to grow properly (1). Microbes are composed of carbon, which make up about halve of their dry weight. They can obtain carbon from the environment or from ca

### Calculating the energy required to change temperatures

1. How much energy (In kcal) is required to raise the temperature of 1 L of water from 20 to 100C, and then turn it to steam at 100C? 2. A 2 kg rod of aluminum (c = 0.9 kJ/kg-C) at 90C is dropped into 10 L of water at 10C. What is the final temperature of the mixture? 3. A 0.2 kg block of an unknown metal at 50C is immers

### Fermi Function versus Energy

Sketch, using either Matlab or Excel on the same axes, the energy/probability distribution curve for n-type silicon at two temperatures T1 and T2 (where T2 > T1) to show the effect of temperature upon the position of the Fermi level. (Hint: where would the Fermi level be if all the silicon atoms contributed a hole-electron pair?

### Rate of Heat Transfer for an Engine

The thermal characteristics of an engine are being monitored on a dynamometer. Analysis of the coolant water shows that after 30 minutes the engine has lost 36MJ of heat energy. The area of active heat transfer for the coolant side of the engine is 0.84m^2, the coolant temperature in the cylinder head is 102?C and the cylinder h

### Laser Eye Surgery Pulses

Laser eye surgery is carried out by delivering highly intense bursts of energy using electromagnetic waves. A typical laser used in such surgery has a wavelength of 190nm (ultraviolet light) and produces bursts of light that last for 1 ms. It delivers an energy of 0.5 mJ to a circular spot on the cornea with a diameter of 1 mm.

### Estimated Regression Equation for Estimation and Prediction

Data on x = temperature rating (F°) and y = price (\$) for 11 sleeping bags manufactured by Bergans of Norway provided the estimated regression equation ÿ = 359.2668 - 5.2772x. For these data s = 37.9372. Model Rating Price Ranger 3-Seasons 12

### Plotting Temperature, Longitude and Latitude

Please find the complete problem description in the attached file. a=-12 degrees celcious φ is latitude in radians (which should vary from the North to the South pole), b1=40oC, z is the height above sea level (which should vary from the surface to 22km), zT is the approximate tropopause height (you may assume that this is

### Thermodynamics Questions: Problems on Heat Exchange

See attached file for graphs. 1. Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide. If you have 1.8 kg of dry ice, what volume will it occupy if you heat it enough to turn it into a gas at a temperature of 20°C? 2. How much work is done on the gas in the process shown in the figure? 3. If a person has a dangerously high fever, submerg

### Flow Charts from Pseudo-code and Algorithms

How would I convert these into flow charts? Temperature Conversion: "Allow the user to enter a series of temperatures in degrees Celsius (C) terminated by the input of -999. For each one, find the corresponding temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F). The conversion formula is: F = 9 * C/5 + 32 ". Factorial: "Find the fact

### Height at which clouds form considering air temperature, humidity at the surface

On a spring day in the midwestern United States, the air temperature at the surface is 28.0 degrees celsius. Puffy cumulus clouds form at an altitude where the air temperature equals the dew point. Part A If the air temperature decreases with altitude at a rate of 0.6 degrees celsius/100 m, at approximately what height abo

### Physics Stress Magnitude in 1025 steel bar due to linear thermal expansion in the bar unconstrained and constrained

1) (a) If a rod of 1025 steel 19.7 in. long is heated from 68 to 176ï?°F while its ends remain fixed, determine the type and magnitude of stress that develops. Assume that at 68ï?°F the rod is stress free. (b) What will be the stress magnitude if a rod 39.4 in. long is used? (c) If the rod in part (a) is cooled from 68 to 14

### Statistics

1. An experimenter is studying the effects of temperature, pressure, and type of catalyst on yield from a certain chemical reaction. Three different temperatures, four different pressures, and five different catalysts are under consideration. a. If any particular experimental run involves the use of a single temperature, pre

### Thermodynamics

Problem 1: 200 grams of boiling water and 100 grams of ice-cold liquid water are combined in a sealed thermos bottle. (a) What is the final (equilibrium) temperature in the thermos? Hints:C = specific heat of water = 4.186 J/gm0K (b) What is the change in entropy for the parts (hot water and cold water) of the s

### Change of State, calculate the heat of vaporization of water.

In an experiment, a certain amount of steam was allowed to mix with a known mass of cold water whose temperature is known. The change in temperature was noted. From the data obtained, calculate the heat of vaporization of water. Weight of calorimeter = 100.0g Specific heat of calorimeter = 0.1cal/g°C Mass of water =

### Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Reactions

1. Under which temperature conditions will the following reaction be spontaneous? A(aq)+B(aq) C(s)+D(aq) ΔH°=-34.0kJ/mol ΔS° = -57.0 J/mol•K A) above 273°C B) below 323°C C) above 552°C D) below 705°C E) At all temperatures. 2. What is the value of ΔG° (in kJ/mol) for this reaction at 25°C? A (g) B

### Dissolution of Urea

Could you please show me in detail how to do this? We were asked to repeat the procedure 3 times using different amounts of urea. Additionally, we were asked the minimum and maximum temperatures. My answers are: Adding 2 grams of urea and 50 mL of water: Initial temperature = 21.00 degrees C minimum temperature = 18.99

### Deformation of block of wood when one surface is heated

See the attached diagram. A block of wood that is 3 inches wide x 6 inches long x .380 inches thick is fixed/anchored to a structure. The top surface of the wood block is heated to 300 degrees C. The bottom surface is cooled to an undetermined temperature. The differential in temperature causes the top surface to expand

### Pressure, Volume, and Temperature are given to find moles

A tank of volume 0.5 m^3 contains oxygen at a pressure of 1.5E6 Pa and a temperature of 20 C. Assume that the oxygen behaves like an ideal gas. a. How many kilomoles of oxygen are in the tank? b. How many kilograms? c. Find the pressure if the temperature i increased to 500 C. d. At a temperature of 20 C, how many kil

### Relationship between Resistance and Temperature.

Please help with the following thermodynamics problem. The current, passing through an incandescent light bulb, becomes lower than the initial value, some moments later after it is switched on. Why? a) Change in drift velocity b) Change in Electrostatic Potential (Potential drop across the conductor) c) Chang

### Physics: Pyrex glassware resistence to temp changes; refrigerator door left open

Please help with the following problem. 3. Pyrex glassware is noted for its ability to withstand sudden temperature changes without breaking. Explain how its coefficient of linear expansion contributes to this ability. 4. The door of a refrigerator is left open. Assuming the refrigerator is in a closed room, will the air

### Problems on Pascal's law, pressure etc.

1). Here is a demonstration Pascal used to show the importance of a fluid's pressure on the fluid's depth. (See attachment) An oak barrel with a lid of area 0.20 m^2 is filled with water. A long, thin tube of cross sectional area 5.00 10^-5 m^2 is inserted into a hole at the center of the lid, and water is poured into t

### Characteristic Properties - Melting and Boiling Points

Procedure 1 1. Take a Constant Temperature Bath from the Tools shelf and place it on the workbench. 2. Open the Properties window and click on the Constant Temperature Bath. Set the bath temperature to "dry ice". 3. Take a clean test tube from the Glassware shelf and place it on the workbench. 4. Fill the test tube

### A C++ console program that will read input data from a text file and performs simple meteoroligical calculations - finding greatest temperature deviation and wind average. Makes use of structures and arrays.

You are developing a database of measured meteoroligical data for use in weather and climate research. Define a structure type measured_data_t with components: site_id( a 4 digit integer), wind_speed, day_of_month, and temperature. Write a program that inputs measured_data_t records and determines the site with the greatest va

### Tempature and Heat questions are examined.

A copper vat is 44m long at 20 degrees Celcius. How long will it be when filled at boiling water (at one atmosphere of presure) This is needed at the nearest three decimal places. an aluminum wing on a plane is 35.5m long when the temperature is 20 degrees celcius. At what temperature would the wing be at 0.06m shorter. Th

### Pressure, Temperature and Absolute Zero Calculations

Procedure 1. Take a gas piston from the Glassware shelf and place it on the workbench. 2. Take a balance from the Tools shelf and drop it directly onto the gas piston. Record the mass of the empty piston. Mass of empty piston 111.420 g 3. Select one of the gases from the Chemicals shelf and fill the gas piston with 100

### Line Broadening to Measure Homogeneous Width

More line broadening: Figure 6.2 shows data from measurements of the homogeneous line width of the D_1 (6p^2 P_1/2 --> 6s^2 S_1/2) and D_2 (6p^2 P_3/2 --> 6s^2 S_1/2) transitions in Cs at 894 and 852 nm respectively. In addition to the homogeneous broadening, in homogeneous broadening is caused by the thermal motion of the a

### Nursing Research to determine the effects of three cooling blanket temperatures

I will need to develop a study (as an advance practice nurse in an ICU) to determine the effects of three cooling blanket temperatures on: 1) time to cool 2) shivering and 3) self-perceived discomfort in adults with fever In your response: A. Identify an appropriate study design B. Diagram the study design C. Discuss t

### Baseline Project 12 - Temperature Scales

Skill Level I: You are an American exchange student planning to study in Florence, Italy, during the winter term. In preparation for your trip, you consult the Italian school's Web site to find out what the temperature is likely to be. However, the daily weather is given in the Celsius scale. Use the table to find a way to co

### 1. You take a glass coffee mug from the dishwasher following the dry cycle. You fill the mug with cold water from the refrigerator. To determine the final temperature of the cup, and of the water in it? (Mass of mug & water and their initial temperatures given) 2. A spacecraft power system generates electricity by absorbing heat from a nuclear reactor operating at 1000 C and expelling heat from a radiator operating at 300 C. What is the theoretical maximum efficiency of the system?

1. You take a 50 g glass coffee mug from the dishwasher following the dry cycle. You use a dishcloth because the temperature of the mug is 90 deg C. You fill the mug with 250 g of cold water from the refrigerator. The temperature of the water is 5 deg C. Assuming that no heat is lost to either the air, the kitchen counte