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Searching algorithms are aptly named - each on is a finite set of well-defined instructions to be used as steps for searching a collection of items for a member displaying a specific, desired attribute. These items could be stored in a list, array, dictionary, database or simply be a search space defined by a mathematical formula - or any combination thereof - and the search parameters can also be defined in any number of ways, so constructing an efficient, specially-tailored search algorithm can be challenging.


Direct search method graphically displayed on a Broyden function [ Constructed in MATLAB by Guillaume Jacquenot ]


When searching virtual space, search algorithms can be described as a sort of constrain satisfaction problem where the end state is a set of objects that meets some pre-determined constraints or limitations, e.g. all the prime numbers in a set of natural numbers given. These contraints need not be mathematical, however, they could be anything from the qually simple 'all the blue marbles in the marble collection' to a more abstract and hard-to-define, 'all the people in the country fit to lead their nation'. These properties are determined by the machine performing value assignments to chosen variables in order to compare or single out desirable objects. 

More technically, search algorithms are commonly constructed on the basis of mathematical equalities or in equalities (e.g. find all the people equal to or taller than 1.5m), or on functions that minimize or maximize a variable (e.g. find the tallest person). A subclass of search algorithms are those whose metaheuristic method involves viewing the items in the collection to be searched as vertices of a virtual graph joined by edges that represent attributes or other heuristic links. These algorithms scan the space by travelling from vertex to vertex via these edges in a special order. On the other hand, collections to be searched may be viewed as a tree. Unlike with a graph, algorithms for searching trees exist that are entirely guaranteed to find the exact or optimal solution if only they are given enough time to execute fully. 

Often, instead of searching out a particular single item, a sub-structure of the overall collection may be desired. Combinatorial search algorithms are of paramount use here. Given a discrete structure such as a finite group, string or graph, these algorithms can seek out a sub-structure whose every element displays the desired properties, or otherwise contains a maximum or minimum value of a given function.

Prim Algorithm and Kruskal's Algorithm

Given the graph on the attachment, perform the following traversals in questions 1 and 2. Show the steps. Use extra space if needed. 1. Depth-First Search 2. Breadth-First Search Give the weighted graph on the attachment; answer questions 3 - 4. Show the steps. Use extra space if needed. 3. Find the shortest p

JAVA- Data Structures and Algorithms

1. Show the list configuration resulting from each series of list operations using the List ADT of Figure 4.1. Assume that lists L1 and L2 are empty at the beginning of each series. Show where the current position is in the list. • L1.append(10); • L1.append(20); • L1.append(15); • L2.append(10); • L2.append(20

Planning a route for a robot to take from one city to another

Consider the problem of planning a route for a robot to take from one city to another. The basic action taken by the robot is Go (x,y), which takes it from city x to city y if there is a direct route between those cities. DirectRoute(x,y) is true if an only if there is a direct route from x to y; you can assume that all such fac

Finding Clip Art

Please suggest two sites other than Microsoft’s that offer clip art (for a price or for free). Include how many clips are available, how they are organized, and the pricing system.

c++ search and sort

C++ program using Microsoft Visual Studio Sort & Search Evaluation You are to compare two sorting algorithms and to compare two searching algorithms by running and collecting data on each. Your data for sorting and searching will be strings of 25 characters in length. The two sorts to compare are the Bubble Sort and th

A Series of Software Questions

1. What is a race condition in software? Why are race conditions difficult to debug? 2. What are the advantages of allowing software users to identify and report bugs? What are the disadvantages? 3. Why do some people argue that shrinkwrap software should be exempt from the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act and Article 2 of the Unifo

MATLAB Code Functions

1. Construct your own MATLAB function realizing the insertion sort algorithm. Your function should have an unsorted array as its input and the sorted array as the output. In particular, you will need: (i) Draw a flowchart of the function realizing the insertion sort (ii) Write the corresponding MATLAB code. You should check

C++ Information Retrieval Program using Binary Tree

As different authors tend to use different vocabularies and to use common words with differing frequencies. Given an essay or other text, it is interesting to find what distinct words are used and how many times each is used. I'm trying to produce a driver program and the information-retrieval package using ordinary binary s

Big Oh notation and algorithm

Suppose that you have a dictionary whose words are not sorted in alphabetical order. As a function of the number, n of words, what is the efficiency of searching for a particular word in this dictionary ? Do the same for dictionary whose words are sorted alphabetically. Compare results.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Technology

The term "educational technology"covers a wide range of tools and methods exploiting computers, networks and media for delivering knowledge. Compare virtual classes with at least two other delivery methods (TV-based courses, on-site company training, using manuals and textbooks individually, etc.) Discuss their advantages and

Java List Arrays Example: Class Slist

Use the following shell class SList, and complete its implementation as per the guidance in points 1 through 5. Read the documentation on the member function declarations carefully. public class SList { // Methods public void insert(int item); // Pre: The list is not full // item is not in the list // Post: it

Fix the given Javascript code that implements the Heron Method to locate the square root of any number. Also list a set of test cases that will thoroughly exercise the Heron Method code.

The Heron Method for approximating the square root of a number states that if x is a guess for the square root of n then a better guess x' is: x' = [x + (n/x)] / 2 Naturally this process can be repeated using x' in place of x the next time through the loop. The loop can stop when the difference between the previous and n

Simple Student Information Database Implementation

Simple Student Information Database Implementation Programming language: C++ Database Description. Each record in the database has following fields: 1) 8 digit student ID 2) Last name 3) First name 4) Telephone number 5) Major 6) GPA 7) Year of birth 8) Month of birth 9) Date of birth 10) Home address There is

Please help with descriptions for each part

Suppose you are given an array A of n sorted numbers that has been circularly shifted k positions to the right. For example, {35, 42, 5, 15, 27, 29} is a sorted array that has been circularly shifted k = 2 positions, while {27, 29, 35, 42, 5, 15} has been shifted k = 4 positions. (a) Suppose you know what k is. Give an algori

Database Fundamentals

I would like some help to Further my understanding of how SQL and the Oracle database work together with basic database design methods using Functional dependencies, Entity relationships and deriving relations to 3NF etc.

Relational data model

I would like to see a T diagram for this one created in Word along with a written explaination. This will help me to understand these identifications. Assignment: Your contact at the University has given you a set of tables. (see attachment). What tables are you are going to use in this project, what are the appropriate f

How to secure mail infrastructure using trusted identifies?

How can we secure mail infrastructure using trusted identities? What can be the trust criterias? How mail transfer works and how the notion of trust should be introduced? Why do we need identity based trust? What can be the related works? What can be a new approach to secure mail infrastructure?

Statements About Car Rental Systems

Identify ambiguities or omissions in the following statement of requirements for a rental car reservation system: Customer specifies start and end dates for the car rental, and where they would like to pick up and return the car. The system then presents the customer with a list of available cars and prices. The customer sele

A Web Page for Binary Searches

The sort method, when applied to an array of strings, returns a copy of that array in which the strings appear in alphabetical order. For example, if the variable words stored the array ["foo", "bar", "biz"], then the call words .sort() would return ["bar", "biz", "foo"]. Create a Web page named bin.html that performs binary

Understanding Digital Downloads and Compression

I need information on understanding the inner workings of digital downloads and digital compression. I need to follow the outline below. I'm running out of information. I need to evaluate the role and impact of a computing technology on society. I. Introduction II. What are digital downloads and digital compression? III. W

Digital Downloads and Compression Effect's on Society

Please provide information on how digital downloads/media and digital compression effect's society. I need to follow the outline below. I'm running out of information. I need to analyze the integration of a computing technology into a specific field from at least two perspectives such as historical, legal, ethical, economic, soc

Need help with algorithm analysis

1) find the kth largest value in an unsorted array of N elements. Estimate the running time. It should be better than quick sort running time. I think O(n + klogn) is an efficient running time (if you can do a better algo, please do so). I don't need the entire program. Just functions that show the timing. This is how I did it.

Comparing Articles: Quality and Structure

Please read the two attached articles and evaluate their content and quality. In your answer carry out a critique of them using the two sets of questions listed below: (a) Quality: 1. Is the topic of the paper sufficiently interesting (for you personally or in general)? 2. Did the author miss important earlier work? 3. Are