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Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium is the state in which the forward rate of a reaction equals its reverse rate of reaction. At the beginning of a reaction, the forward rate of reaction is higher because there are more reactants to turn into products. Over time, the products accumulate and turn back into the reactants. When the net change of reactants and products becomes zero, this is the chemical equilibrium. A chemical equilibrium can be represented by an equilibrium constant. An equilibrium can be said to be on “the far right” if most of the reactants are consumed to form the products. On the other hand, an equilibrium can be said to be on “the far left” if the most of the reactants, stay as reactants, and very little product is formed. For example, if the chemical equation is: aA + bB <--> cC + dD Then, A and B represent the reactant concentrations, while C and D represent the product concentrations. a, b, c and d represent the stoichiometric coefficients of the respective reactant and products. With this information, the equilibrium constant Kc can be written as: Kc = [C]^c [D]^d / [A]^a [B]^b The value of Kc can then be used to understand the nature of the chemical equilibrium. A high Kc value would correspond to an equilibrium on “the far right,” while a low Kc value would correspond to an equilibrium on “the far left.” Thus, studying the laws of chemical equilibrium can help predict the direction of a chemical reaction, as well as the quantity change of reactants and products as the reaction proceeds.

Categories within Chemical Equilibrium

Le Chatelier’s Principle

Postings: 23

Le Chatelier’s Principle can be used to predict how a change in condition affects a chemical equilibrium.

Blood and hemoglobin

Essay Topic: (Virtual Lab report) Life at high altitudes and haemoglobin production. More details about tasks is attached in document below: Length: 750 words (calculations are not included in the word limit) Topic: Virtual Lab Report requirements: - A minimum of 5 references. These can include journals, books, reput

Equilibrium Constant Expression

Given the following reaction: C0(g) + H2O(g) <> C02(g) + H2(g) (Please see the attachment for the properly formatted reaction). a) Write the equilibrium constant expression for this reaction. Note: gaseous-phase H20 is included in the equilibrium expressions, unlike liquid phase H20. b) The equilibrium constant for the reactio

Cell Reactions & Gases

Question #1 The gas reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) <--> 2NH3 (g) has K- = 0.80 at 600 K and Kp = 0.15 at 650 K a) Is delta H greater than or less than zero? b) Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? Question #2 The reaction N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) <---> 2HN3 (g) is at equlibrium a) The number of moles N2 present plus he numb

Solevent extraction solvent system

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using ether as an extraction solvent? 2. Why must the stopper at the top of the separatory funnel be removed before liquid can be withdrawn through the stopcock? The detailed description of the above mentioned problem is described in the attached file.

Equilibrium Reaction of Insoluble Water

Lead(II) carbonate is very insoluble in water, meaning that the equilibrium constant for the dissociation reaction is much less than 1: PbCO_3 (s) <-> Pb(2+) (aq) + CO_3(2-) (aq) Write reactions for each of the following and explain how the equilibrium reaction for the dissociation of lead(II) carbonate is affected. a.

Distribution Coefficient Question

When an aqueous solution of an organic compound is shaken with an immiscible organic solvent, such as diethyl ether, the solute distributes itself between the two phases. When the two phases separate into two distinct layers, an equilibrium will have been established such that the ratio of the concentrations of the solute in eac

Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Equilibrium & Acids and Bases

1. The following data were collected for the rate of disappearance of NO in the reaction 2NO(g)+O2(g)-----> 2NO2(g) Experiment [NO](M) [O2](M) Initial Rate(M/s) 1 0.0126 0.0125 1.41 x 10^-2 2 0.0252 0.0250 1.13 x 10^-1 3 0.0252 0.0125 5.64 x 10^-2 a

Equilibrium Constants and Precipitation

108. Consider a solution that is .022M in Fe2+ and .014M in Mg2+ a. if potassium carbonate is used to selectively precipitate one of the cations while leaving the other cation in solution, which cation will precipitate first? What minimum concentration of K2CO3 is required to cause the precipitation of the cation that precipita

Equilibrium Constant and LeChatelier's Principle

1, Calculate Ke for the following (equilibrium concentrations given below substances) a) PCl5 (g) + heat &#8596; PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) [0.105] [0.219] [0.219] b) 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) &#8596; 2 SO3 (g) + heat [0.0500] [0.0500] 0.103] c) CO2 (g) +

Equilibrium Constants and LeChatelier's Principle

1. For a certain chemical reaction, &#61508;H&#61616;= -156 kJ. Assuming the reaction is at equilibrium, classify each of the following actions by whether it causes a leftward shift, a rightward shift, or no shift in the direction of the net reaction. a. a decrease in temperature R L no shift b. an increase in tempera

Finding Equilibrium Constant and Delta G

Part 1: Ammonia can be produced by the reaction of hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas, as shown below: N2(g) + 3H2(g) &#8594; 2NH3(g) Given that the standard free energy of formation (&#8710;Gof) of NH3 (g) is -111 kJ/mol at 335 K, calculate the equilibrium constant, K, at this temperature. To express an answer in exponential

LeChatelier's Principle, Equilbrium and Combined Gas Law

Calculate Keq for the following (equilibrium concentrations given below substances) a) 2 O3 (g) &#8596; 3 O2 (g) + heat [6.0 x 10-1] [0.21] b) 2 CO2 (g) + heat &#8596; 2 CO (g) + O2 (g) [0.103] [0.024] [1.18 x 10-2] c) NO2 (g) + O2 (g) +

equilibrium constant and pH during titration

HOBr(aq) ----> H+(aq) + OBr-(aq) Ka = 2.3 x 10-9 1. Hydrobromous acid, HOBr, is a weak acid that disassociates in water, as represented by the equation above. (a) Calculate the value of [H+] in a HOBr solution that has pH of 4.95. (b) Write the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of the HOBr in water,

Silver Chromate Solubility and Precipitation

Answer the Questions based on Ag2CrO4 (Silver Chromate) and Ag3PO4 . Silver Chromate dissociates in water according to the equation. Ag2CrO(s)<->2Ag+ CrO4 Ksp= 2.6x10^-12 at 25 deg C. a) Write the equilibrium constant expression for Ag2CrO4 (Silver Chromate) b) Calculate the concentration, in mol L-1 of Ag in a saturated so

Relating to the solubilities of two silver compounds

Answer the following questions relating to the solubilities of two silver compounds. Ag2CrO4 and Ag3PO4 Silver chronate dissociates in water according to the equation shown below Ag2CrO4 (s). = 2 Ag+ (aq) + CrO4 2- (aq) Ksp = 2.6 x 10^-12 at 25C A) write the equilibrium constant expression for the dissolving of Ag

Equilibrium: solubility

Answer the following questions that relate to solubility of salts of lead and barium: A) A saturated solution is prepared by adding excess PbI2(s) to distilled water to form 1.0 L of solution at 25C. The concentrations of Pb2+ (aq) in the saturated solution is found to be 1.3 x 10^-3 M. The chemical equation for the dissoluti

Chemical Equilibrium: Constants, Temperature, Concentrations

1. Describe the equilibrium constant in terms of the law of mass action and write equilibrium constant expression for multiple equilibria. 2. Relate the constants and equilibrium constants and describe how equilibrium varies with temperature. 3. Use equilibrium constants to predict the direction of a reaction towards equil

HETP Calculations from Distillations

I am trying to figure out a few questions/problems. -You want a column to have 6 theoretical plates. Your packing material has a HETP value of 1.5. What is the length of the column that you would need? I thought I would multiply the 6 TP by the HETP value. (This was a past quiz question) How do I solve this type of question?

Equilibrium Temperature Calculation

1.) Calculate Ke for the following (equilibrium concentrations given below substances). See attached file for full problem description. 2.) For all three of the equilibria in problem #1 predict (1) how Ke is affected by an increase in temperature, (2) predict how the equilibrium will sh

Nitric oxide air polution

The equilibrium constant (Kp) for the formation of the air pollutant nitric oxide (NO) in an automobile engine at 530 degree C is 2.9 x 10 to the minus eleventh N2(g) + O2 (g) = 2 NO (g) What is the partial pressure of NO under these conditions if the partial pressures of nitrogen and oxygen are 3

Calculating PH Concentration

The formation constant for zinc tetraammine ion [ Zn(NH3)4+2] is 4.1 x 108. What is the concentration of free Zn+2 in a solution of 3M NH3 (total ammonia) buffered to a pH of 9.0 if the total zinc concentration is 0.1M? The Kb for NH3 is 1.8 x 10-5

Calculating the concentration of ion at equilibrium

Please help with the following problem. Provide step by step calculations. Consider a solution that is 0.10 M in a weak triprotic acid that is represented by the general formula H3A with the following ionization constants: For H3A: Ka1= 1.0 x 10 ^-3 Ka2= 1.0 x 10 ^-8 Ka3= 1.0 x 10 ^-12 What is the concentration of

Chemical Equilibrium

1. Define dynamic equilibrium state in terms of a) reaction rates b) change in observable properties c) energy and entropy state 2. In which of these closed containers is the vapour pressure the greatest? Explain the choice. a) a 1 L container with 5 mL of water held at 20&#730;C b) a 1 L container with 15 mL of water

Calculate Eqiulibrium Constant

Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for each of the following reactions ( we abbreviate citric acid as H3Cit) using the Ka values for citric acid and for carbonic acid: H3Cit + HCO3- <--> H2Cit- + H2O +CO2 H3Cit + 3HCO3- <--> Cit3- + 3H2O +3CO2 Given Ka1 of H3Cit =8.4x10-4; Ka2 of H3Cit = 1.8x10-5; Ka3 of H3Ci

Equilibrium

I am enclosing a problem is causing me some doubt. As you will read from the problem wording, It seems that the value should be 0.3 mole as well. However, it is not within the options. (See attached file for full problem description) --- When 2.0 mol of carbon disulfide and 4.0 mol of chlorine are placed in a 1.0 Liter fl

The hemoglobin molecule carries oxygen in the blood

Please help answer the following problems. Include references in the solution. The hemoglobin molecule carries O2 in the blood from the lungs to the cells, where the O2 is released for metabolic processes. The molecule can be represented as Hb in its unoxygenated form and as Hb.O2 in its oxygented form. One reason CO is to