Essay Topic: (Virtual Lab report) Life at high altitudes and haemoglobin production.
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Length: 750 words (calculations are not included in the word limit)
Topic: Virtual Lab Report
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Life at high altitudes and hemoglobin production
Physiology is affected by environmental conditions. The consequences of a sudden change in altitude dramatize this fact. At an altitude of 3 km the partial pressure of oxygen is only about 0.14 atm, compared with 0.2 atm at sea level. Flying from San Francisco, which is at sea level, to Mexico City where the elevation is 2.3 km or scaling a 3 km mountain in two days can cause headache, nausea, unusual fatigue and other discomforts. These are all symptoms of hypoxia, a deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues. In serious cases the victim may slip into a coma and die if not treated quickly.
The combination of oxygen with hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, which carries oxygen through the blood, is a complex reaction, but for our purposes here it can be represented by a simplified equation:
Hb (aq) + O2 (g) ↔ HbO2 (aq)
Where HbO2 is oxyhemoglobin, the hemoglobin-oxygen complex that actually transports oxygen to tissues.
Explain the connection between O2, Hb and red blood cells. Hb transport protein requires a particular metal ion to effectively transport oxygen around the body. Research which ion this is and state if it is a cation or an anion. Explain why O2 requires the transport protein Hb incorporating Henry's Law in your explanation. Explain why there is less O2 at higher altitudes.
The above reaction is reversible. State Le-Chatelier's principle and discuss the effects of the following:
b) In the tissues (where there is a low concentration of O2), which direction is the equilibrium favoured?
c) In which direction will the equilibrium shift if there is a lower than normal level of hemoglobin in the blood?
Write the equilibrium expression for the above reaction. Calculate the equilibrium constant given the following [O2] = 0.0078 M, [Hb] = 0.005 M and [HbO2] = 0.9 M. Explain what the equilibrium constant tells us about the equilibrium and state if the products, reactants or neither is favoured in your calculation above.
The relationship between oxygen, hemoglobin, and red blood cell is that all three can interact with each other to carry oxygen to all parts of the tissues. Oxygen diffuses into the blood in the lungs. (1) Red blood cells contain hemoglobin (Hb) that is a specialized protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs. (1) The binding of oxygen to the hemoglobin in the blood makes it possible for oxygen to be transported to all parts of the body. Hemoglobin is a protein present in the red blood cells. (1) It is made up of four subunits ( globulin chains) that are connected together. (1) The normal adult hemoglobin ( Hbg) contain two alpha globulin chains and two beta globulin chains. The hemoglobin globulin chains contain a central structure called the heme molecule that is composed of the metal ions called Fe+ iron. The iron is essential in transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. The iron is responsible for the red color of blood. The metal complex iron is a cation . (2) In hemoglobin , each subunit contains a heme group and each heme group contains an iron atom that bind to one oxygen (O2) molecule. Each hemoglobin protein can bind to four oxygen molecules. (2)
Oxygen need the protein hemoglobin so that oxygen can bind to it and enabling oxygen to be carry to all parts of the body. Without hemoglobin, oxygen would only be dissolved in the blood based on its partial pressure and solubility. Oxygen is a gas that can exert an amount of partial pressure that is a measure of the partial concentration of oxygen in the gas. If we increase the amount of oxygen in the gas, the partial pressure will also increase which will cause more oxygen to be dissolved in the blood. If we lower the oxygen concentration in the gas, it would lower the partial pressure and lower the dissolved oxygen concentration. The concentration ...
The relationship between oxygen, hemoglobin, and red blood cell is that all three can interact with each other to carry oxygen to all parts of the tissues. Oxygen diffuses into the blood in the lungs. (1) Red blood cells contain hemoglobin (Hb) that is a specialized protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs. (1) The binding of oxygen to the hemoglobin in the blood makes it possible for oxygen to be transported to all parts of the body.