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Repair and Cancer

Cancer is unregulated cell growth which leads to formation of tumors in areas of the body. Cells can be benign, meaning they are inert and do not spread or they can be cancerous which means the having the ability to spread to other areas of the body through the blood or lymphatic system. Tumors can restrict normal body processes and release hormones and enzymes that will alter the internal environment. Cancerous cells do not follow the normal cell cycle, base sequence is altered so that cell death is not observed – the cell can continuously grow and multiply. Tumor formation starts with a cancerous cell that is transported around the body, infecting cells in contact and multiplying to produce a population of cancerous cells. The process of metastasis describes the condition when areas of the body are infected by cancerous cells.

Genes contain coded information that control cell division, tumor suppressor cells, cell programmed death and DNA repair activities. Any mutation to base sequence can change any of those controllable variables, producing cancerous cells that does not undergo apoptosis and rapidly divides. Mutations in base sequence of DNA can give rise to the expression of cancerous cells. The cause of cancer is not fully understood, a small portion of cancer is attributed to hereditary defects but daily activities affect the risk of cancer such as exercise, diet and lifestyle.  Carcinogens are substances found in the environment that cause mutations in genes, examples are asbestos, radiation and gamma rays.

Treatment of cancer can vary depending on degrees of growth and spread, but the most common forms are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiative therapy. In surgery, the tumor is removed and depending on the stage of cancer, it maybe be eradicated or further spreading may occur. Chemotherapy uses selective chemicals to kill cancerous cells; it may destroy healthy tissues as a side effect. Radiative therapy uses concentrated ionizing radiation to kill cancerous cells. 

DNA Repair Mechanisms

What is DNA repair? What are the mechanisms of DNA repair? What is DNA stability? DNA is the genetic information in each living cell. It is responsible for how we look and is essential to life itself. Our DNA is always under attack by environmental factors, which lead to DNA damage. (1) If the DNA damage is not fixed,

Leukemia and the Philadelphia Chromosome

Please help with the following problem. Provide at least 300 words in the solution. Those with chronic myelogenous leukemia have a piece of chromosome 9 connected to chromosome 22 in the cancerous cells. This connection in chromosomes in referred to as a 9:22 translocation, and is called the Philadelphia chromosome. Please e

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Please explain concepts related to cancer immunotherapy, including types of immunotherapy, their impact on the patient, and the immune processes involved.

Cancer Vaccination

Please provide a description of cancer vaccinations including an explanation of the difference between endogenous and exogenous categories of vaccines. Also, please provide several references for further elaboration of the topic. Thank you.

DNA Repair, Cancer, Retrovirus, & Transposons

1. a.Describe in detail how a direct DNA repair mechanism works. b.Can you think of a way in which you could inhibit this repair mechanism in bacteria that have been exposed to UV radiation? 2. For each of the following, give a brief description: a.DNA exonuclease b.AP site c.DNA ligase replication repair

Cancer treatment options.

Discuss your understanding of surgical therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy related to cancer.

Stomach Cancer

What is stomach cancer? What Causes Stomach Cancer? Which microorganisms cause stomach cancer?

Skin cancer

Why are there no skin cancers that originate from stratum corneum cells?