Neuroscience, often called neural science or neurobiology is the study of the nervous system, particularly the brain as the main control of the body and cognitive thinking. It is an interdisciplinary science as it incorporates and uses computer science, math, physics, chemistry and engineering. Neuroscience also looks upon the impact and formation of neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders. There are many branches of modern neuroscience such as behavioral, cellular, cognitive, molecular neuroscience.
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system (CNS), this includes the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the associated nerve fibers that connect the body to the CNS. Neurons are specialized cells with a cell body, axon and dendrites wrapped in a myelin sheath that work in conjunction to transfer information in the form of electrochemical signals. The brain itself contains billions of neurons connected to each other in elaborate synaptic networks, and these connections and synapses change in structure over a human life.
The brain can be divided into the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. The forebrain is split into two parts where the diencephalon controls motor functions and processing sensory signals and responses, while the telencephalon is in charge of cognition such as thinking, perceiving and understanding language. The midbrain is in charge of responding to auditory and visual stimuli, whilst the hindbrain is split into the metencephalon and myelencephalon. The metencephalon deals with balance, equilibrium and movement coordination whilst the myelencephalon is in charge of autonomic functions like heart rate and respiratory pathways.