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Hydrodynamics is a subset of fluid dynamics which studies liquids that are at rest or in motion. Fluid mechanics has been around for thousands of years. Archimedes made the first known contributions with his invention of the screw pump. The ancient Romans developed extensive hydraulic machines and devices by using Archimedes’ screw pump and mine pumping system.

Major developments in hydrodynamics did not start to happen until Sir Isaac Newton formulated the laws of motion. Leonhard Euler applied these laws to fluids. He recognized that dynamic laws for fluids could only be expressed with relatively simple forms. The effects of friction or viscosity had to be neglected. Thus, the results of his analysis were only an estimate.

Today, we have a series of equations to explain the properties of liquids through the conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum. Hydrodynamics is largely used to explain flow through pipes and various obstacles, such as dams. It is also used to predict the flow patterns of turbulent or interrupted flow. With computational simulations, large hydrodynamic problems can be simulated on a small scale. This is extremely useful when looking at the conditions in the ocean or large bodies of water.

Underwater Jet Dispersal Rates

A long lance 38mm ID mounted vertically into a pool the last 300mm of the lance is bent 45 deg, so the end of the lance is 305mm above the pool floor. It is supplied by a submersible pump that is 1m below the pool surface and provides 3.5m/s and 4.25 l/s I'm trying to figure out how far the water jet will travel in the

The Viscosity of Water Using the Capillary Method

Viscosity of a liquid PURPOSE: To measure the viscosity of water by capillary flow method. REFERENCES: 1) Sears, Zemansky and Young, Univ. Physics, 1982 Edition, Section 13-6. 2) The Physics Teacher, May 1990, pp. 297-299. THEORY: The rate of flow of a liquid (cm3/s through a capillary is directly proportional to the

Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics: Pressure and Bernoulli Equation

Please show all the work. Water is flowing upward in the vertical duct as shown (in the figure in the attachment). The velocity at the inlet (station 1) is 100 ft/s, and the area ratio between station 1 and 2 is 0.6 (A2/A1 = 0.6). Two pressure taps, 10 ft apart, are connected to a differential manometer, as shown. The specif

Hydrodynamics: Equation of continuity, rate of flow of fluid

Q: A meter long hose of 14cm diameter is connected to a second hose which is 4 meters long and 7cm in diameter. At the open end of the second hose water flows out at a rate of 8 cm^3/sec. What is the ratio of the speed of the water flowing in the second hose to the speed of the water flowing in the first hose?