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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field. By contrast, batteries store energy through chemical reactions. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. For example, a common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in electrical devices.

Where there is a voltage across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the insulator causing a positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy Is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value called the capacitance. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The SI unit of capacitance is a farad. It is equal to one coulomb per volt.

The capacitance is largest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductors. Therefore capacitor conductors are often referred to as plates. The insulation between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, the breakdown voltage.

Capacitors are often used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, capacitors smooth the output of the power supply. In resonant circuits, capacitors tune radios to particular frequencies. 

Estimating Power In An 8 Ohm Speaker

Estimate the power developed in the 8 Ω speaker of the circuit of the attached figure for a 1 kHz sinusoidal input signal of 100 mV peak. All capacitors may be assumed to act as a short circuit at the frequency of operation.

Circuit design

I have attached a cmos library for various transistors that pspice does not currently have. I only have access to the Q2N2222 BJT, CD4007 MOS transistor and the 2n7000 transistor and of course all the various resistors and capacitors. If you could please help me design a circuit with the attached specifications using only the pa

Electricity, Magnetism and Waves

See the attached file. 3.) A head is (approximately) a conducting sphere of radius 10 cm. What is the capacitance of the head? What will be the charge on the head if, by means of a Van De Graaf generator, you raise the potential on the head to 100,000 V? What voltage would be required to cause electrostatic break down in ai

Amplifier Design: Schematic diagram, Theory of operation, SPICE simulation

The Applied Magnetics Laboratory at the university is developing imaging techniques for monitoring drug delivery to tumors with nano-sized magnetic beads. For this project it has been determined that an amplifier with the following specifications is needed: i) Open circuit voltage gain in |Vo/Vin| of 300 +- 10%. ii) Input re

Calculate: AM, SSB Reception and Modulation

1. You are asked to build an AM receiver with a 15 micro H inductor which must tune from 500 to 880 kHz. Find the required variable capacitance and the bandwidth at 770 kHz, if the ideal bandwidth at 380 kHz is 10 kHz. 2.A receiver tunes from 20 to 30 MHz using a 10.7 MHz IF. What is the range of the oscillator and image fre

Dielectrics and Infinite Electric Cylinders

1. The space between the spaces of a parallel plate capacitor is filled with two slabs of linear dielectric material. The slabs have different dielectric constants but the same length L, width W and thickness d. (note the area of the top (or bottom) of the capacitor is 2*L*W). Slab 1 has a dielectric constant of e1=2 and slab 2

Capacitors in series and parallel

You have two capacitors, one is 4.0 micro F the other is 2.0 micro F. You also have some wires and a 10.0 V battery. 1. Using the schematic symbols (see attachment), draw a diagram of a circuit with the two capacitors connected in series with the battery. Draw a diagram of a circuit using the same battery and capacitors with

A fuel gauge uses a capacitor to determine the height of the fuel in a tank. It measures the dielectric constant of the combined air and fuel between the capacitor plates as a function of fuel level. To derive an expression for effective dielectric constant etc..

A fuel gauge uses a capacitor to determine the height of the fuel in a tank. The effective dielectric constant K_eff changes from a value of 1 when the tank is empty to a value of K, the dielectric constant of the fuel, when the tank is full. The appropriate electronic circuitry can determine the effective dielectric constant of

5 questions to understand capacitors in series.

For the capacitor network shown in the figure (please see the attachment), the potential difference across ab is 36 V. 1.) Find the total charge stored in this network. Answer in uF. Express your answer using two significant figures. 2.) Find the charge on each capacitor. Enter your answers numerically separated by a co

Capacitors with Identitical Geometries

Three capacitors have identical geometries. One is filled with a material whose dielectric constant is 2.50. Another is filled with a material whose dielectric constant is 4.00. The third capacitor is filled with a material whose dielectric constant k such that this single capacitor has the same capacities as the series combinat

charge, energy stored, and potential difference

For the capacitor network shown in the Figure, the potential difference across ab is 220 V 1) Total C charge stored in this network? 2) What is charge C and energy stored in each capacitor? 3) Total energy in system 4) Potential difference across each capacitor?

Questions of Capacity

Please see attachment: two questions 12, 13 with their figures, thank you. 12. In figure 25-31, the battery has a potential difference of V = 10.0 V and the five capacitors each have a capacitance of 10.0 uF. What is the charge on (a) capacitor 1 and (b) capacitor 2? 13. In figure 25-29, a potential difference of V = 1

Two problems on capacitors

1. Two parallel plates of area 100cm^2 are given charges of equal magnitudes 8.9X10^-7 but opposite signs. The electric field within the dielectric material filling the space between the plates is 1.4X10^6 V/m. (a) Calculate the dielectric constant of the material. (b) Determine the magnitude of the charge induced on each dielec

Uncharged Capacitor Problem

This is a simple review request. The problem states: Each of the uncharged capacitors has a capacitance of 25.0 microF. A potential difference of V = 4200 V is established when the switch is closed. How many coloumbs of charge then pass through meter A? I am not sure I am taking proper note of the "uncharged" state of

Calculating Capacitance

The problem states: You have two flat metal plates, each of area 1.00 m^2, with which to construct a parallel-plate capacitor. (a) If the capacitor of the device is to be 1.00 F, what must be the separation between the plates? (b) Could this capacitor actually be constructed? Please review my solution below and correct

Capacitor and DC Triplers

When a manufacturer makes a cap they make them for DC or AC right? So how make to have ratings of 16v or 30V then at whatever microfarads?

A parallel plate capacitor with a nonuniform dielectric

A parallel plate capacitor with a nonuniform dielectric The dielectric of a parallel plate capacitor has a permittivity that varies as ero+ax, where x is the distance from one plate. The area of a plate is A, and their spacing is s. (a) Find the capacitance. (b) Show that, if er varies from ero to 2ero, then c is 1.44 tim

Reduce the circuit for the least number of elements.

Reduce the circuit for the least number of elements. There is no left vertical side. On the top horizontal side is a 10 Ohm resistor. The line in the center consists of 2 6H inductors in parallel connected to a single 7H inductor that connects to the bottom horizontal side. The right horizontal side consists of a 10 micro Fa

E&M electrostatics and Magnitostatics in magnetic materials

Consider the following parallel plate capacitor Givens: top plate 1 meter wide by 1 meter deep by 10 mm thick bottom plate 1 meter wide by 1 meter deep by 10 mm thick gap 12 mm applied voltage 1000 volts containing different materials inside the gap as follows: a) 12 mm of vacuum (Ke = 1) b) 1 mm of vacuum, 10 mm of

Charge on the capacitors when reconnected oppositively.

Two capacitors, with capacitance 4.20*10^-6 F and 5.90*10^-6 F, are connected in parallel across a 660-V supply line. The charged capacitors are disconnected from the line and from each other, and then reconnected to each other with terminals of unlike sign together. a) find the final charge on the 4.20*10^-6 F capacit

Parallel Plate Capacitors

A parallel plate capacitor is filled with a dialectric whose dialectric constant is K, increasing its capacitance from C_1 to KC_1. A second capacitor with capacitance C_2 is then connected in series with the first, reducing the net capacitance back to C_1. What is C_2? Express your answer in terms of K, C_1 and constants.

Compare and contrast various internal strategies

Based on the assigned scenario, answer the following questions: What is the situation? What challenges exist? What opportunities exist? What is the problem? Is there a problem? Is it worth solving? (Process) Based on the assigned scenario, answer the following questions: What does the ideal end-state look like? What are the

Capacitor Question

Please help with the following problem. Provide step by step calculations. A capacitor, C1, is charged using a 6.3 V battery. C1 has a capacitance of 3.55μF 1) When this capacitor/battery circuit reaches equilibrium, what is the charge on each place of the capacitor? 2) When C1 is fully charged, the battery is remove


See attached file for full problem description. Two identical capacitors are charged to different potentials. Define a battery potential and change in energy in the system.

A parallel plate capacitor with plates of area A and plate separation

A parallel plate capacitor with plates of area A and plate separation d has the region between the plates filled with two dielectric materials (ε1 and ε2) as shown in the figure. Determine the capacitance and show that when ε1= ε2= ε your result becomes the same as that for a capacitor containing a singl

Complex coupled circuits

The circuit configuration chosen is that of a pair of tuned circuits which are coupled together and both primary and secondary are tuned to the same frequency. The primary has an inductance of 1 mH and the secondary has an inductance of 1.5 mH. The resistance of the primary is 10 ohms and the secondary 12 ohms. the secondary is

Electrostatics: Coulomb's law, polarization, capacitance.

1. If you turn on a faucet so that a thin stream of water flows from it, you may demonstrate to yourself that a charged object (such as a plastic comb) brought near it will deflect the water. The force is always attractive. Explain why this happens, in terms of the polarization of water. Draw a diagram to illustrate. 2. Supp