Explore BrainMass


An atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a material body of sufficient mass. It is held in place by the gravitational pull of the mass. An atmosphere is more likely to retain if the gravity of the mass is high and the atmospheric temperature is low.

The Earth’s atmosphere contains oxygen which is used by most organisms for respiration. It also protects organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation. Earth’s atmosphere is composed of 78.075 nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide and traces of other “noble” gases.

Earth’s atmosphere consists of different layers. From the ground up it contains the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere and magnetosphere. Each layer has a defining rate of change in temperature with height.

A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star. It typically includes the portion starting from the opaque photosphere outwards. Due to the low relative temperature, stars may form compound molecules in their outer atmosphere.

Initially, the atmospheric makeup is related to the chemistry and temperature of the local solar nebula during planetary formation and subsequent escape of interior gases. The original atmosphere started with the radially local rotating gases that collapsed to the spaced rings that form the planets.

The atmosphere of Venus and Mars are primarily composed of carbon dioxide and a small quantity of nitrogen, argon and oxygen.

Atmospheric Problems

We live at the bottom of a sea of air. The density of this air at the Earth's surface and 0°C is 1.29 kg/m3. Assume that the density of air does not change as we move away from the Earth. a) What height would the atmosphere be? b) Would climbing Mount Everest get you to a place above this height? c) How high is the

Fluids, Archimedes' Principle and Equation of Continuity

**Please consider significant figures and draw visual graphics ** Conceptual Questions:  A person could not balance her entire weight on the pointed end of a single nail, because it would penetrate her skin. However she can lie safely on a "bed of nails" consists of many nails driven through a sheet of wood so that the poin

Gas expansion problems

The answers are given; please provide the workings. 1. A tire contains 1ft3 of air at a gauge pressure of 28lb/in2. How much additional air at atmosphere pressure must be pumped into the tire to raise the pressure to 36lb/in2 at the same temperature? Answer: 0.53ft3 2. A gas having a volume of 100ft3 at 27°C is expanded

Calculate the gauge pressure and the depth of the ocean liner

While exploring a sunken ocean liner, the principal researcher found the absolute pressure on the robot observation submarine at the level of the ship to be about 413 atmospheres. The density of seawater is 1025 kg/m^3. a.) calculate the gauge pressure p_g on the sunken ocean liner. b.) Calculate the depth D of the sunken oce

Aura Mission

On July 15, 2004, NASA launched the Aura spacecraft to study the earth's climate and atmosphere. This satellite was injected into an orbit 705 km above the earth's surface, and we shall assume a circular orbit. a). How fast in km/s is the Aura spacecraft moving?

Helium & Spectral Lines on the Sun

Helium is named after the sun, "helios". So, it was discovered on the sun first. Why was it discovered on the sun before we knew about it here on Earth? Do we get our helium from the sun? The book will talk about first detecting helium in a total solar eclipse and measuring the spectral lines of helium. I don't mean that.

Pressure of air 12$5

Estimate the "total weight" of the atmosphere, using your knowledge of barometers and given the radius of the earth. I believe the answer is 5.2 x 10^19 N. I need to see each step and formula to solve this question. Please assume I know nothing because this would be the correct assumption. :)

Bulk Modulus

Consider a fluid that is under some pressure p, i.e. on every volume element V there is a force acting perpendicular to its surface such that its strength per m2 is the pressure p. A small pressure increase Δp will lead to a small compression ΔV, if the material is linear then these two are related by Δp = -B(&#9

Archimede's principle, buoyancy and pressure

A hollow metal cube made of aluminum has an outer-length of 12cm and an inner length of 8cm (each "side" of the outside of the cube is 12cm long, each "side" of the inside of the cube is 8cm long). The density of Al is 2,700 kg per cubic meter. The density of water is 1,000 kg per cubic meter. If this empty, sealed cube is

Air pressure

(a) assuming an average sea-level pressure of 1000hPa, what is the mass of the atmosphere? assume that the earth is as sphere with radius 6400km. (b) what is the mass of the atmosphere above 500hPa? you can again assume a sphere of radius 6400km for this calculation. what fraction of the mass of the earth's atmosphere lies ab

Calculating Gas Gauge Pressure

Four tanks of gas, labeled A, B, C, and D are stored under different conditions. The gases in these tanks are then placed into a fifth, tank E. Eventually, the combined gases reach a temperature which is that of the 25 degrees celcius room. What will be the gauge pressure of the final sample? Tank information for each tank is

Atmosphere Problem: Tightly capped 5 liter container of oxygenated water

Assume that you have a tightly capped 5 liter container of oxygenated water. The temperature of the water is 25 degrees celcius, the oxygen partial pressure being 2.4 atmospheres . This water is degassed(outgassed) such that 96% of the oxygen is removed. How many moles of oxygen gas are removed from the sample? How many molecule

A 3 dimension vector problem with displacement.

A cosmic ray plows into Earth's upper atmosphere, liberating a shower of subatomic particles. One of these particles moves downward 3.2 km, then undergoes a collision after which it moves 1.6 km at 27 deg. northward of the vertical. It then undergoes another collision that sends it moving horizontally eastward for 2.1 km befor