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Astronomy is the study that deals with the physics, chemistry, mathematics and the evolution of celestial objects. The objects studied are moons, planets, stars, nebular and galaxies. Astronomers also look at the phenomenon that takes place outside of the Earth’s atmosphere such as supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts and cosmos background radiation.

Cosmology, although often related, is different than astronomy. Cosmology studies the universe as a whole. Cosmology will be discussed in a later section.

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. There have been astronomical artifacts found in early civilizations such as Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, Iranians and Maya. It is evident that they performed methodical observations of the night sky. The invention of the telescope however revolutionized modern science. It allowed astronomers to be able to see further into the universe. Before telescopes, the study of the sky was conducted from tall vantage points such as tall buildings and mountains.

Categories within Astronomy


Postings: 27

A layer of gases which surround a material body of sufficient mass.

Kepler's Third Law and Orbital Periods

Dear O.T.A., I need to understand how to calculate the orbital period p of Neptune using Kepler's 3rd Law. The table's value of p = 163.7 years for Neptune . I need to compute a percent error. I'm not even sure what an "AU" is. I hope to calculate/use a value for the Earth's semimajor axis as a = 1.000 A.U., and I kno

Astronomy: Absorption lines, wavelengths, hydrogen and helium fusion, sunspots

Please help in answering the following three conceptual questions: 1. Explain why the absorption lines of an element have the same wavelengths as the emission lines of that element. 2. Why can't hydrogen fusion and helium fusion go on at the same time at the center of a star? 3. What evidence do we have that there is a

Recent discovery in the field of astronomy

I need some help with the following: Use a reliable source to find an article (preferably from a scientific journal) that examines a recent discovery or other current event in the field of astronomy. Review the selected article and write a synopsis of its content. I also need the appropriate citation. Thank you

Planetary rings

Describe the differences in the ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn. Why can we see Saturn's rings and not Jupiter's?

Astronomy inquiries

For a place at a latitude of 55 degrees determine how high above the horizon the Sun is at noon on (a) the Vernal Equinox, (b) the Summer Solstice, and (c) the Winter Solstice If the sidereal period of the Moon was 29.0 days (instead of the correct 27.32 days) what would be its synodic period? (Hint: consider how far ar


Galileo shook the reality of the people in his time by using what instrument? Name 3 of his big discoveries that upset the "perfect heavens" notion of the times. What ultimately happened to him when he stood up for his discoveries?

Astronomy: Units and Measurements of Astronomical Distances

What is an astronomical unit (AU)? What is that same unit in kilometers? How far is it to Pluto in AU? What is a parsec (pc)? How many AU are in a parsec? What is the distance to the nearest star (Proxima Centauri) in pc? What is a light-year? How many light-years are there in a pc? What is the size of the Milky Way galaxy in li

Astronomy questions

. List the following in order of increasing length size of the Sun distance from the Sun to the Earth size of Jupiter distance to Jupiter distance to the Moon distance to Pluto 2. You are cruising down the highway at 60 mph (100 kph) and, without losing speed you follow the road which veers to the right. Hav

Phases of the Moon

What is the phase of the Moon if it rises at 1. Midnight? 2. Sunrise? 3. Halfway between sunset and midnight? 4. Halfway between noon and sunset? Please explain.

Help with Astronomy question

Please explain the energy output of the Sun, include how it produces energy, why it is in "equilibrium," and what this means. Thank you

Two Astronomy Questions

Einstein discovered that energy and mass are equivalent. What is one technological development that has emerged from this knowledge and is the human race better or worse off with it? Why do you think astronomy was important to people in ancient times? How do those beliefs affect us today?

Astronomy Questions

Include at least one reference per question other than self. When looking at the night sky, you can see the light of different stars. If one star looks brighter than another, is it necessarily brighter? Explain. Astronomical discoveries are imperative to science. How are they significant to our personal lives? Explain.


1. Explain the difference between Absolute Brightness and Apparent Brightness. 2. (a) When determining the temperature of an isolated star, do we require the distance to the star ? Explain. (b) When determining the speed of an isolated star, do we require the distance to the star ? Explain. (c) When determining the intrins


1. Why do Sun-spots always appear in pairs ? 2. How can astronomers explore the layers of the Sun below its surface ? 3. What is the source of heat for the Earth's interior ? 4. What are the lunar maria composed of ? How did they form ? 5. What is the evidence that Mars once had running water on its surface ? Th


1. How do we know Mercury has a large iron core ? 2. What could be the reasons that Venus has no magnetic field ? 3. Why are there so few Moonquakes now ?

Basic astronomy problems

Four stars of different mass arrive on the Main Sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram at the same time. Which star has a mass just about the same as the mass of the Sun? The star with spectral class B7 The star with spectral class F1 The star with spectral class G2 The star with spectral class M4 What is th


1. The two points on Earth intersected by its axis of rotation are known as the __________ and _____________________ . 2. What is the name of the line drawn on Earth dividing it into two equal halves, north and south? 3. Great circles are circles that pass through the North and South Poles on Earth. The Earth is divided

Costs for solar energy

Do you think the government has the capabilities of aiding residence homes in initial costs for solar energy? Explain

Can astrology be considered a science?

Can astrology be considered a science? NO personal opinions , you should search the web for suitable articles and comment on them. -You should give the websites you use. Thank you

General Astronomy

On a clear sunny day, the sky above us looks bright blue. In the evening, the sunset puts on a brilliant show of reds, pinks and oranges. Why is the sky blue? What makes the sunset red?

This posting guides users to write evaluations of poems.

This posting addresses this scenario: As you analyze this work, choose a poem by each of these poets. Then put together a journal entry that carefully evaluates the writing, based on a your 'Reader Response' reading of one (or more) of the poems. Focus on the element described as "romance." Describe the qualities of the poet'


Describe what Black Holes are and how they form. Can stars or other planets orbit a Black Hole? Explain why or why not. Why are O and B stars the brightest in open clusters? Why are red giants the brightest stars in globular clusters?

Cephid variable stars

Explain why Cephid variable stars are so useful for determining the distances of galaxies.