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    Electrical and thermal conductivities of metals are due to the outer layer of electrons which are delocalized. The electrical conductivity as well as the electrons’ conductivity, to the heat capacity and head conductivity of metals can be calculated from the free electron model. This does not take into account the detailed structure of the ion lattice.

    When considering the electronic band structure and binding energy of a metal, it is important to take into account the positive potential caused by the specific arrangement of the ion cores, which is periodic in crystals. The important consequence of the periodic potential is the formation of a small band gap at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. The potential of the ion cores can be treated by various mathematical models. The simplest model is the nearly free electron model.

    Metals have strong conducting abilities which are often utilized in electrical appliances and for carrying an electric current over a distance with little energy lost. Electrical power grids rely on metal cables to distribute electricity as well as home electrical systems. For example, home electrical systems are mostly wired with copper wire for its strong conducting properties.

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