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Boltzmann Distribution

The Boltzmann distribution is a distribution function or probability measure for the distribution of the states of a system. It underpins the concept of the canonical ensemble, providing the underlying distribution. There is a special case of the Boltzman distribution used for describing the velocities of particles of a gas. It is called the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution but is commonly referred to as the Gibbs measure.

The Boltzmann distribution for the fractional number is

Ni/N = (gie-Ei/(kBT))/E(T)

Where kb is the Boltzmann constant, T is temperature, gi is the degeneracy, N is the total number of particles and Z(T) is the partition function.

The Boltzmann distribution was discovered in the context of classical statistical mechanics by J.W. Gibbs in 1901. It underpins the concept of the canonical ensemble. 

Liquid in a vessel in a vacuum chamber

A vessel holding some liquid is placed in a vacuum chamber that is constantly pumped. Gas leaks from the vessel into the vacuum through a small hole, radius 4.15 micro m, but the pressure inside the vessel remains 38.6 kPa. After a day mass of the vessel has dropped from 100 g to 99.5 g. Assuming the container has at all times b

Lyman vs. balmer series

The Lyman series is brighter than the Balmer series. Why? Why was the Balmer series discovered first?