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Kinetic Theory

The kinetic theory of gases describes a gas as a large number of small particles which are in constant random motion. The particles constantly collide with each other and with the sides of the container. The kinetic theory explains properties of gases, such as temperature, pressure and volume. It considers the molecular composition and motion of the molecules. The theory states that pressure is not due to static repulsion between molecules but to collisions between molecules moving at different velocities through Brownian motion.

Gas particles are too small to be visible by the human eye. The jittering motions of pollen grains or dust particles which can be seen under a microscope are known as Brownian motion which display the same properties as gas particles. The results of this jittering motion is directly from collisions between the particles. This is experimental evidence for kinetic theory confirmed the existence of atoms and molecules. 

Categories within Kinetic Theory

Ideal Gas Law

Postings: 32

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

Equipartition

Postings: 1

Equipartition is the equal division of the energy of a system in thermal equilibrium between different degrees of freedom.

Boltzmann Distribution

Postings: 8

The Boltzmann Distribution is a distribution function or probability measure for the distribution of the states of a system.

De Broglie Wavelengths of Visible Particles

The De Broglie wavelengths of visible particles. Why does the wave nature of particles come as such a surprise to most people? If, as, De Broglie says, a wavelength can be associated with every moving particle, then why are we not forcibly made aware of this property in our everyday experience? In answering, calculate the de Bro

Finding Tension in a String and Speed

1. Perform the following operations and write your answers with the appropriate number of significant figures: (a) 589.01−89.020 (b) 1.0×9.00 (c) 180/π (d) 180.0/π (e) 3.901×10−5+1.0×10−7 2. Perform the following unit conversions, and express the answer in scientific notation: (a) 0.510 kg to g (b) 92 mi to km (c)

Bernoulli's Theorem.

Water at a pressure of 3.8 atm at street level flows into an office building at a speed of 0.50 m/s through a pipe 4.2 cm in diameter. The pipes taper down to 2.6 cm in diameter by the top floor, 20 m above (in figure). Calculate the flow velocity and the pressure in such a pipe on the top floor. Ignore viscosity. Pressures are

Kinetic Molecular Theory: Gases on a Molecular Level

The kinetic molecular theory of gases was developed to explain aspects of gases such as the volume's direct relationship to temperature and inverse relationship to pressure. Some of the KMT assumptions include elastic collisions, increase in motion and pressure with increasing temperature, and lack of attractive forces betwe

Kinetic Theory of Gases

In a diesel engine, the piston compresses air at 308 K to a volume that is 0.0629 of the original volume and a pressure that is 48.7 times the original pressure. What is the temperature of the air after the compression?

Kinetic Molecular Theory

1) Calculate the average kinetic energy of the N2 molecules in a sample of N2 gas at 273 K and 546 K 2) Consider separate 1.0 L samples of He(g) and UF6(g), both at 1.00 atm and containing the same number of moles. What ratio of temperatures for the two samples would produce the same root mean square velocity?

Multiple Choice questions on General Chemistry

1) According to the kinetic-molecular theory, molecules of different gases at the same temperature always have the same __________. a. average density b. volume c. pressure d. molecular mass e. average kinetic energy 2) The van der Waals equation for real gases recognizes that ____________. a. the non-zero v

What causes thermal expansion?

What causes thermal expansion? It says in most textbooks this is caused by particles vibrating more gaining more energy and thus occupying more space etc (kinetic theory) but is there a more in depth answer to this as this seems to be over simplified.

Questions on Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Constants: R = 8.31JK^-1mol^- k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1 standard atmospheric pressure 100.3kPa mass of hydrogen molecule = 3.32x10-27kg Questions: 1. A fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature has a pressure of 50000Pa, and a volume of 3.2m^2. The pressure is changed to 80000Pa. What is the new volume? 2. Some gas en

Kinetic theory : The mean free path of molecules.

In an experiment, the viscosity of the gas was found to be 2.25 x 10^-4 CGS units. The RMS velocity of the molecules is 4.5 x 10^4 cm/s. The density of the gas is 1 gm per liter. Calculate the mean free path of the molecules.