Climatology is the study of climate. The term climate can be defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. Climate models are used in a variety of different ways to study the dynamics of the weather and climate systems to make projections of future climate. Basic knowledge of the climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as El Nino. Climate models can be used for a variety of purposes from studying the dynamics of the weather and climate systems to formulating projections about future climate conditions.
Scientists use climate indices based on several climate patterns in the attempt to characterize and understand the various climate mechanisms that culminate in our daily weather. Climate indices are used to represent the essential elements of climate. They are generally devised with the twin objective of simplicity and completeness.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces and ice. They can be used to study the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. All models balance incoming energy as short wave electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave electromagnetic radiation from the earth.
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