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# Polarization

Polarization is the property of waves that allows them to oscillate in more than one direction. The polarization of light is described by the position of the wave’s electric field at a point in space over the time of one oscillation. Polarization is perpendicular to the wave’s direction of travel. The electric field may be positioned in a single direction or it may rotate as the wave travels.

Many sources of electromagnetic radiation have many molecules that will emit light. Light is only polarized if there is a relationship between the emitters of light. Light can be described by the degree of polarization. It may also be described by the conditions of the polarization ellipse.

### Intensity of light passing through series of polarizers

Unpolarized light is passing through three successive polarizers placed one after the other. Polarizing axis of Polarizer 1 is vertically arranged i.e. polarizing axis is making 0 degree angle with vertical axis. Next polarizers, Polarizer 2 and Polarizer 3 are placed in such a way that their polarizing axis are making 30 and 90

### Discussing Polarization Mechanisms

Why do polarization mechanisms increase with frequency in the following order: Space charge/interfacial polarization (low frequency) Dipole polarization Ionic polarization Electronic polarization.

### Polarization, Relaxation and Loss

Concepts of relaxation, polarization, and dielectric loss. Why (not a mathematical argument) does a polarization following (in phase with) a field generate the highest loss? Why wouldn't slow polarization mechanisms lead to loss (is this because they're too slow to polarize in the first place)?

### Electrostatic potential

3. (a) Four point charges are placed at the vertices of a square as shown in the diagram. The charges are of equal magnitude, Q, the sign of each charge is given in this diagram (attached). (i) What is the value of V x E at all spatial points in this conﬁguration of charges (note that the charges are stationary)? What is t

### Volume Charge Density and Non-Uniform Polarization

Obtain an expression for the volume charge density ρ(r) associated with a non-uniform polarization P(r) in a dielectric material. The polarization in a spherical region of radius a is: P(r) = (P0)r(a-r)R, where P0 is a constant and R is a unit vector in the outward direction from the center of the sphere. The sphere has

### Model of dielectric with frequency dependent dielectric constant

(See attached file for full problem description) --- Frequency dependent dielectric constant The polarization of a dielectricum P(r,t) is given by calculating the mean of the induced dipole moment of the bound charge in a small volume V(r) in the neighbourhood of r, i.e P(r,t) = (1/V(r))&#61523;j pj(t) In a simple model fo