Explore BrainMass


Optics is the study of light's behavior and properties when it interacts with matter. There are three types of light, visible, ultraviolet and infrared light. Studying light is helpful because light is an electromagnetic wave. Therefore, studying light also helps physicists understand more about electromagnetic radiation which is involved in X-rays, radio waves and microwaves.

Optics is divided into two main fields of study: geometrical optics and physical optics. Geometrical optics is when light is considered to travel in a straight light. The light can be refracted by a medium to travel in a different direction. Physical optics is when light is considered to be an electromagnetic wave. Each field is useful when studying different properties.

Optics is a major area of research in physics and engineering. Optical physics and engineering research is generally in the fields of electromagnetic or quantum properties of light. Lasers, visual systems and cameras are just a few examples of everyday technologies that use optical technology. Since the invention of lasers in 1960, lasers have become a multi-billion dollar industry with applications of supermarket barcode scanners, to fibre-optic communications and laser eye surgery. Optics has also help aid in the research of atmospheric properties and optical phenomena’s such as the blue sky. This phenomenon occurs due to Rayleigh scattering which redirects higher frequency sunlight back into the field of view.

Electromagnetism & optics

2. a. A fixed volume charge distribution of constant charge density p_0 is contained within a rectangular box centered at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z). The box has dimensions w X w X d, where d << w ( i.e. you can model the sheet as infinite in the x and y directions). i) Find the total charge insid

Electromagnetism and Optics

The diagrams attached represent the polarization states of light. In each case the wave is traveling along the x-axis in the positive x direction. i) Which diagram represents linear polarized light at 45 degrees? ii) Which diagram represents left circular light? Explain. iii) Which diagram represents un-polarized light?

Optics Question: Light Traveling Through Different Medias

A beam of light traveling in air (n=1.00) falls on a layer of oil (n1=1.465) which is exactly 1.000cm thick and which rests on a layer of water (n=1.333) of thickness d2 cm. Angle of incidence is 19 degrees. (a) Find the physical path length, l1 of the ray in the oil. (b) Find the optical path length, OPL1, of the ray in the o

Understanding Lenses.

Learning Goal: To learn the quantitative use of the lens equation, as well as how to determine qualitative properties of solutions. In working with lenses, there are three important quantities to consider: The object distance s is the distance along the axis of the lens to the object. The image distance s' is the distance alo

Optic problem

** Please see the attached file for the complete problem description ** Please show how to solve the following four questions: 4) Consider an optical fiber having a core index of 1.46 and a cladding index of 1.45. (please see the attachment for the illustration) a) What is the critical angle for this core-cladding inte

10 problems about light, wave length, focal length, telescope, polarized beam

(Please refer to the attachment for detailed description of the problems) 1. An object is placed 30 cm to the left of a converging lens of focal length f1= + 20 cm. A second lens sits 40 cm to the right of the first lens. The two- lens system produces an overall magnification of M= + 2.0. What is the focal length (f2) of the

Optics: Wavelength of a beam of light reflected by surface of oil

A layer of oil of thickness 200nm floats on top of a layer of water of thickness 400nm resting on a flat metallic mirror. The index of refraction of oil is 1.24 and that of the water is 1.33. A beam of light is normally incident on these layers. What must be the wavelength of the beam if the light reflected by the top surface o

Optics: Twelve Problems on Different Properties of Light

1. A dentist uses a mirror to examine a tooth that is 1.00 cm in front of the mirror. The image of the tooth is formed 10.0 cm behind the mirror. Determine (a) the mirror's radius of curvature and (b) the magnification of the image. 2. An object is placed 40.0 cm from a concave mirror of radius 20.0 cm. (a) Find the location

Ray Optics: Concave Mirror

Please answer and explain the following Concave mirror is placed near one end of an optical bench. It is aimed to make an image offside from the light source projected onto a screen. Initially the light source is placed 3 m from the mirror. The screen is moved until the image comes into focus on the screen. What would be t

Wave Optics : Interference

Two spherical waves with the same amplitude, A, and wavelength, lamda, are spreading out from two point sources S1 and S2 along one side of a barrier. The two waves have the same phase at positions S1 and S2. The two waves are superimposed at a position P. If the two waves interfere constructively at P what is the relationship b

Wave Optics (Interference)

4. A card containing two slits separated center-to-center by 0.1mm, is illuminated by a red laser (lambda = 632:82nm). If the fringes on an observing screen are to be 10mm apart, how far away (in m) should the screen be? 5. Two parallel slits 0.1mm apart are illuminated and it is found that the fifth bright fringe is at an an

double-slit interference

1. Blue light at 480nm impinges perpendicularly on a pair of very narrow parallel slit apertures separated by 0:15mm. A fringe pattern appears on a screen 2m away. How far (in mm) from the central axis on either side will we find the second-order (m = 2) bright bands? 2. Red plane waves from a ruby laser (lambda= 694.3nm) in

7 Conceptual Questions on Ray and Wave Optics.

32. When a beam of white light passes perpendicularly through a flat pane of glass, it is not dispersed into a spectrum. Why not? 35. Light of what color is scattered most of atmosphere? Least? 36. If the earth had no atmosphere, what would the color of the sky be during the day? 39. Radio waves are able to diffract

Wave Optics: Diffraction through transmission grating.

I have this problem which I'm not sure how to do. I understand the diffraction grating and all the formulae that describe diffraction with only a grating but I'm not sure how to do calculation when a grating is in combination with a lens. Could you please just explain how I should do this problem, but don't do any calculations t

Ray Optics: spherical mirrors and lens

A thin double convex lens of focal length f = +15 centimeters is located at the origin of the x-axis, as shown in the attachment. An object of height 8 centimeters is placed 45 centimeters to the left of the lens. a.) On the figure in attachment, draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image by the lens. Clearly sho

Wave Optics: Interference through thin films.

1.) A mixture of yellow light (wavelength = 582 nm in vacuum) and violet light (wavelength = 414 nm in vacuum) falls perpendicularly on a film of gasoline that is floating on a puddle of water. For both wavelengths, the refractive index of gasoline is n = 1.40 and that of water is n = 1.33. What is the minimum nonzero thickness

Concepts of dispersion of light through two prisms.

This is a conceptual questions, so don't use Snell's law or any numbers. Two identical prisms made of dispersive glass, are placed as shown and a narrow beam of white light enters from the left. If the prisms are in the configuration for minimum deviation for green light, draw what happens to, say , the 4 colors of red, yello

Fiber optics - temporal broadening by a multimode fiber.

How significant is the broadening of a nsec pulse laser in the optical fibers? Their fiber was quartz, 2.5 m long, 600 um in diameter, with numerical aperture in air of 0.22. Let's assume you sent an idealized pulse of 337 nm light (from the N2 laser) with zero temporal width into the fiber. Calculate the minimum and maximum fli

Refraction of a Parallel Beam of Light through a Hemisphere.

A parallel beam of light is incident on the surface of a transparent hemisphere of index 2.0 at an angel of 45 degrees to the axis. Show whether or not the central ray in the beam is totally reflected at the plane surface and find the position of the image formed by refraction at the first surface and the plane surface. Indicate

Multiple choice questions related to LCR circuits, Bohr model, interference

1. In a series LCR circuit at resonance, decide which of the following statements are true: a) The current leads the voltage across the generator b) The current is in phase with the Voltage c) The impedance is at a minimum d) The current is at a minimum e) The resonance frequency is determined by the inductance, the capac

images of double lenses system

Show work and confirm answers A> An object of height 5 cm is placed 30 cm in front of spherical concave mirror. If the image is real and 10 cm high, what is the radius of curvature of the mirror? B> Two lenses, both placed on the x-axis. The first lens is a diverging lens with focal length 4cm placed at x = -2cm

Optics with a Hubcap

A dedicated sports-car enthusiast polishes the inside and outside surfaces of a hubcap that is a section of a sphere. When she looks into one side of the hubcap, she sees an image of her face 30 cm in back of the hubcap. She then flips the hubcap over and sees another image of her face 10 cm in back of the hubcap. How far is

Interferometry Fabry-Perot

3) A Fabry-Perot interferometer with fixed plate spacing t = 1.50mm is used to examine filtered light from a helium lamp, with wavelength lambda = 587.56nm. The plates have reflectance R = 0.950. a) What is the free spectral range (in nm) for this spacing t and wavelength lambda? b) What is the smallest resolvable wavelen

Optics: Reflection, refraction and interference of light.

1. An object is midway between the biconcave lens (with focal length -16.7 cm) and the concave mirror (with radius of curvature 20 cm). The mirror?lens distance is 25 cm. Considering only the light that leaves the object and travels first toward the mirror, locate the final image formed by this system. Is this image real or virt

Wave optics: Young's double-slit experiment

In a Young's double-slit experiment the separation y between the second-order bright fringe and the central bright fringe on a flat screen is 0.0180 m, when the light has a wavelength of 425 nm. Assume that the angles that locate the fringes on the screen are small enough so the sin(theta) ~ tan(theta). Find the separation y whe

Optics: wave-plates and Faraday effect

What kind of wave-plates one needs to apply to rotate the plane of linearly polarized light 45 degrees clockwise? What is the physical difference between this type of polarization rotation and that one achieved with Faraday effect?

Wave Optics: Interference in thin films/wedge shaped film.

Two rectangular optically flat plates (n=1.52) are in contact along one end and are separated along the other end by a 2.00 micrometer thick spacer. The top plate is illuminated by monochromatic light of wavelength 546.1 nm. Calculate the number of dark parallel bands crossing the top plate (including the dark band at zero thick