Architecture is the process and product of planning, designing and construction, usually of buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. In relation to buildings, architecture has to do with the planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, environmental and aesthetic considerations. It also encompasses the pragmatic aspect of realizing buildings and structures. These include scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration.
The earliest surviving written work of architecture is by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruius, a good building should satisfy these three principles, firmitas, utilitas and venustas. These translate to durability, utility and beauty respectively.
Since the 1980s, the complexity of buildings began to increase. The field of architecture became multi-disciplinary with specialisations for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods. There has also been an increase separation of the ‘design’ architect from the ‘project’ architect who ensures that the project meets the required standards and deals with matters of liability. Also today, a large structure cannot just be designed by one person.