2. Turn the -OH on carbon 5 around so it is close to the aldehyde carbon (carbon #1). 3. Form the hemi-acetal using the carbon #5 -OH and the carbonyl at carbon 1. a. As you make the hemi-acetal, write out the mechanism by which this occurs. Concentrate your efforts on what is happening at C5 and C1. Review the formation of
Please help with the following problem. For an SN2 reaction, the effect of solvent polarity is usually much less, but the ability (or really lack there of) of the solvent to solvate the nucleophile is the important criteria. Which of the two reactions proceed faster: a.) CH3CH2I in presence of ethanol or b.) CH3C
Could you please give a stepwise mechanism for the preparation of 3-nitrochalcone from 3-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetophenone. (This is an aldol condensation reaction)
2. A. Draw structures for the following compounds: 1-phenyl-1,2-epoxybutane, dimethylsulfide B. Name the following compounds: see attached file for diagrams. 3. Imagine that you have treated cis-2,3-epoxy-3-methylpentane with aqueous acid in a ring-opening reaction. a. Draw the epoxide, showing stereochemistry. b.
What is the step by step mechanism for dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol so that the following products are obtained:3-methylcyclohexene (non-Zaitsev, E2), 1-methylcyclohexene (Zaitsev, E1), and methylenecyclohexene (hydride shift, minor product)? In addition, the 2-methylcyclohexanl exist in both cis and trans form. Pleas
Write structure of dibromine products that you think will be formed as a result of the reaction of Z-2-Pentene with Bromine. How about the dibromide products predicted when E-2-Pentene reacts with Bromine.
I need some help answering this question: Solvolysis reactions may be defined as reactions in which: a. Carbocations are required intermediates b. Elimination competes with substitution c. Reactivity is always accompanied by inversion of configuration d. The attacking nucleophile is usually the solvent e. Aprotic solvents
Please help with the following problem. Writing a chemical equation for the conversion of Codeine to Morphine in the body. I know that the ether group of codeine becomes an alcohol group in the morphine, but I am unable to get a formula with the other products. I could also use some help with making sure I have the funct
This was an experiment done in lab class. The the following alcohol was reacted with hydrochloric acid in presence of zinc chloride (HCl-ZnCl2) and the result:
This was an experiment done in lab class. The the following alcohol was reacted with hydrochloric acid in presence of zinc chloride (HCl-ZnCl2) and the result: 1. 1-butanol; test tube has no color change, clear liquid 2. 2-butanol; test tube had two layers formed, top lawer lookes white and oily 3. 2-methyl-2-propanol (tert-b
I need help writing the balanced equations for the attached problems and determining which reactions proceed by an SN1 mechanism and SN2 mechanism. --- 1. Write the balanced equations for the following: a. 2-bromobutane + NaI ---> b. 2-bromobutante + AgNO3 + EtOH ---> c. 2-bromo-2-methylpropane + NaI ---> d. 2-bromo-2-m
I need help with writing the reaction and predict the major product for the following reactions. (Make sure to consider stereochemistry and regiochemistry, if applicable) a) 1-butene-3-yne reacts with excess hydrogen in the presence of a Pd/C catalyst b) 1-Butyne reacts with BH3 followed by hydrogen peroxide.
Predict the two most likely products for the following reaction and show a stepwise mechanism for the formation of each product. (Hint: one product is formed by Markovnikov addition, the other by a carbocation rearragement.) (CH3)3CCH=CH2 + HCl ->
Beginning with acetylene and using any other reagents necessary, how would you synthesize 1,2-dichloropropane? (Hint: more than one step is required. Show all reagents and all intermediate steps clearly.)
Problem: Treatment of (2R, 3S)-2-bromo-3-phenylpentane with KOH can lead to different products, depending on the reaction pathway. Draw (2R, 3S)-2-bromo-3-phenylpentane and the major product(s) expected for each of the following reaction mechanisms: SN1, SN2. Please indicate the stereochemistry and regiochemistry clearly.
Pure (R)-2-bromo-1-flourobutane reacts with sodium cyanide in aqueous ethanol to form pure (R)-2-flouromethylbutanenitrile. 1) What is the probable mechanism of this reaction? Explain your reasoning. 2) Based on your choice of mechanism, explain how both the substrate and the product can have R configuration? 3) Wha
I need help designing an experiment using a secondary halide, 2-bromohexane or 2-bromoheptane as the beginning material. I know that the things I need to do are use NaOH, -OH, and CH3OH to come up with the products of an alkene and secondary alcohol. I need specific reactions, materials, and procedures. I then plan to use GC/
Predict the structure of the diphenylquinone product, C28H40O2 by the oxidative coupling of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol with oxygen in the presence of base. (Show work)
In contrast to SN2 reactions, SN1 reactions show little nucleophile selectivity; that is, when more than one nucleophile is present in the reaction medium, SN1 reactions show only a slight tendency to discriminate between weak and strong nucleophiles, whereas SN2 reactions show a marked tendency to discriminate. a. Provide an
When the alkyl bromides (shown below) were subjected to hydrolysis in a mixture of ethanol and water (80% CH3CH2OH/20% H2O) at 55OC, the rates of the reaction showed the following order: (CH3)3CBr > CH3Br > CH3CH2Br > (CH3)2CHBr Provide an explanation for this order of reactivity.
1-Bromobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane is extremely unreactive in either SN1 or SN2 reactions. Provide explanations for this behavior.
Although ethyl bromide and isobutyl bromide are both primary halides, ethyl bromide undergoes SN2 reaction more than 10 times faster than isobutyl bromide. When each compound is treated with a strong base/nucleophile (CH3CH2O-), isobutyl bromide gives a greater yield of elimination product than substituted products, whereas eth
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) reacts with the following: (1) hydrogen chloride (1 mole equivalent) in ether (2) deuterium chloride (1 mole equivalent) in ether (3) bromine (1 mole equivalent) in carbon tetrachloride (4) excess hydrogen gas in the presence of a PtO2 catalyst (5) excess mercury (II) acetate and methanol f
Show the mechanism and product of the following Sn1 reaction using curved arrows to show the bond-making and bond-breaking process. Show intermediates. Label the leaving group, nucleophile and electrophile. in the blank at the bottom left, indicate which reaction coordinate diagram is correct for this rraction. Is the startin
Predict the product of crossed Cannizzaro reaction between formaldehyde and p-anisaldehyde (4-methoxybenzaldehyde). In excess formaldehyde, the aromatic aldehyde is reduced to a primary alcohol in high yield.
Give a detailed mechanism for conversion of 2,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene, using H3PO4, into 1,1-dimethyl-2-isopropenylcyclopentane.
In my organic class we are studying alkenes and alkynes. I am familiar with the addition and elimination procedures. However, I am unclear of how some of the mechanism go since my book only deals with the straight forward mechanisms such as halogenation, hydration, etc. Please see the attachment.
When amide X is treated with lithium aluminum hydride, the corresponding amine can be isolated in good yield. (a) Provide a concise mechanism for this reaction. (b) Draw the structure of a reducing agent capable of converting an ester to the corresponding aldehyde. Give an explanation as to how this reagent works.
Match the descriptors with the correct reaction mechanism by placing the appropriate letter from the column. Some can have more than one letter for the answer. 1. The product is an alkene. 2. Inversion of configuation occurs. 3. Apolar aprotic solvent is best. 4. Methyl >1 >2>3 %A carbocation is involved. (RX Mechanisms
For each of the following reactions, show the major product(s) of the reaction, and present a stepwise mechanism using the curved arrow notation. Designate the reaction category (SN1, SN2, E1, E2) where applicable. Fill in the blank. For the following reaction, the rate increased with increasing concentration of 2-bro