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    Chemical Measures of Environmental Indicators

    Chemical measures of environmental indicators are a type of ecological measure which are critical in assessing the state of the environment. Often times the most practical and economical method for tracking the state of a particular area is through the use of environmental indicators. For example, what if a municipal government was concerned that the water being supplied to households was unhealthy? Well, a possible way for assessing the water quality from the supply lake would be to track the levels of certain chemical measures such as the pH, pesticides and the amount of specific metals such as lead and copper. These variables can be measured using collected water samples. Water does contain trace amounts of many metals, but high levels are toxic. By using these chemical measures, the municipality would be able to gather specific information pertaining to the quality of the city’s drinking and household water supply. There are a multitude of chemical measures which can be used to track the state of the environment. Some examples of potential chemical measures include pH levels, heavy metals, nutrients, pesticides, greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality and water quality. Often, particular species, such as frogs which have very sensitive skin, can be used to track chemical changes in the environment as well. Thus, chemical measures can be used in combination with other ecological measures, such as biological measures, to track the state of the environment. Clearly there is a diversity of chemical measures available, which can be measured and tracked across different scales. The overall objective in using these measures is to supply the general public, policy makers and other stakeholders with information pertaining to the state of the environment. Hopefully, this will assist society in making decisions to preserve the health and integrity of different environments across the globe. © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com June 5, 2020, 1:04 am ad1c9bdddf

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    Petrol vs. Ethanol to mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emission from Cars

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    Phytoremediation of lead in soil

    Indian mustard (brassica juncea) can be used for phytoremediation of lead in soil because it has the ability to hyper accumulate lead by a factor of 17. The average crop yield is about 4.0 kg per square metre. a) Calculate the expected plant concentration of lead if the soil contains 280 ppm. b) What mass of lead would p

    BOD Concentration and Population Equivalent

    A sample of wastewater contains 0.20 lbs of BOD per 120 gallons. Question #1: Calculate the BOD concentration in mg/l. Question #2: What is the equivalent population for a small town if the flow is 1.0 MGD with an average BOD of 450 mg/l?

    Aeration Time and BOD Loading

    A conventional activated sludge secondary plant processes 7.7 MGD of wastewater with an influent BOD into the biological units of 170 mg/l. The total volume of the basins is 300,000 ft3 and the MLSS concentration is 2,700 mg/L. Question #1: The aeration period in hours. Question #2: BOD loading in lb/1000 ft3/Day

    A Trickling Filter Question

    A trickling filter has the following: - Average Wastewater Flow: 500 gpm - Recirculation Ratio: 0.4 - Influent into the Primary Clarifier: 500 mg/l - The primary clarifier BOD removal efficiency: 80% - Filter Diameter: 54 feet - Depth of media: 6 feet Question #1: Calculate the BOD loading Qu

    BOD Load to the AST Tank & volume

    A town in Virginia has a population of 50,000 people. The average flow for each person is 100 gpd. If the design were to use a detention time of 6 hours, and a recirculation rate of 0.5, WAS concentration of 9,000 mg/l, an F/M Ratio of 0.4, and a reactor loading rate of 30 lbs of BOD / 1000 cu.ft. Assume the BOD concentration

    Wastewater Treatment - Numerical Problem

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    Environmental Science #5

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    Environmental Science #2

    I need assistance with a project concerning demographic transition, which is little confusing to me. I am really concerned with this class as I have a failing grade. Any and all of your assistance will be greatly appreciated. I really need your help with this assignment Not all countries have moved through all four phase

    Effects of coal combustion

    Coal combustion can affect freshwater or marine (saltwater) organisms in different ways. Describe the steps involved in one such way, from combustion to the effect(s) on one species or group of organisms. Which environmental sphere(s) is involved in each step, and how?

    Calculation of Chlorine Ions Necessary for Charge Balance

    See the attached file. Data: A chemical analysis of a surface water yields the following data: Ion Concentration mg/L Ca^(2+) 90 Mg^(2+) 30 Na^+ 72 K^+ 6 Cl^- 120 SO4^(2-) 225 HCO3^- 165 pH 7.5 Problem: The Cl^- concentration in the water analysis given has been questioned. What concentration

    Dissolved oxygen problem/ environmental engineering

    Info: BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD5 is the total amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms during the first five days of biodegradation BOD5 = (DOi - Dof)/(P) this is the five-day BOD of a diluted sample Where DOi = the initial dissolved oxygen (DO) of the diluted wastewater DOf = the final DO of

    Calcium Carbonate Dissolved per Litre

    The average pH of precipitation in rural areas is 5.80. Assuming that the pH is controlled by the carbonate system, i.e., no anthropogenic acid gases are present in the atmosphere, calculate the amount of calcium carbonate (mg) dissolved per liter of rainwater. pKa1=6.33, KCO2=3.388e-02 Hint: pCO2=3.162e-04

    General Chemistry / Environmental chem question

    44) How many metric tonnes of 5%-S coal would be required to yield the H2SO4 needed to produce a 2.0-cm rainfall of pH 2.00 over an area of 100 square kilometers? HINT: Hint: Calculate vol rain, mol H+, mass of S, mass of coal

    Amount of Calcium Carbonate Dissolved

    The average pH of precipitation in rural areas is 6.80. Assuming that the pH Is controlled by the carbonate system, i.e., no anthropogenic acid gases are present in the atmosphere; calculate the amount of calcium carbonate (mg) dissolved per liter of rainwater. pKa1=6.33, KCO2=3.388e-02 I've seen a couple different solutions

    Pecent Contribution to Alkalinity from a Solution

    For a solution having .0025 equivalents/liter total alkalinity (contributions from HCO3-, CO3-- and OH- (hydroxide)) at [H+] = 4.69E-11, what is the percentage contribution to alkalinity from CO3--? Hint: Calculate the bicarbonate concentration and the contribution of the bicarbonate to the total alkalinity.

    The consumption of dissolved oxygen in water by sugar.

    A large pond is 300m by 95m with an average depth of 2.5m. Assuming that the pond is saturated with oxygen, calculate the amount of sugar (C12H22O11) in kg that would be sufficient to completely consume the dissolved oxygen.

    Not for OTA 102922 - Equil. ratios; pH; pE values, etc.

    Deduce the equilibrium ratio of NH4+ to NO3- at a pH of 4.0 for aerobic water having a pE value of +9.0 and for anaerobic water for which the pE value is -7.0. (Provide the aerobic answer the anaerobic answer.) This is not for OTA 102922 as he has already tried this question once.

    PCB Concentration in Lake Michigan

    The PCB concentration in Lake Michigan is declining according to a first-order rate law having a rate constant of 0.079 per year. If the PCB concentration in Lake Michigan averaged 0.47 ppt in 1991, what will it be in 2005? In what year will the concentration fall to 0.10 ppt? What is the half-life period of PCBs in this lake? (

    Deduce the Equilibrium Ratio of NH4+ to NO3-

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    Titrations - rain water with NaOH

    60. A 155 mL sample of rainwater is titrated using 0.0095 M NaOH solution. If 4.8 mL of the NaOH solution was required to reach the endpoint, what was the pH of the rainwater? The computer gave the following hint: Calculate the number of moles of NaOH to reach the endpoint. From this calculate the hydrogen ion concentration and

    pH of Rainwater and Diprotonic Acids

    The pH of a sample of rain is found to be 3.3. Calculate the percentage of HSO4- that is ionized in this sample, given that the acid dissociation constant for the second stage of ionization of H2SO4 is 1.2E-2.

    Working with Concentration Conversion

    44. The concentrations of lead in blood samples are often reported in units of micromoles of lead per liter of blood. Calculate the value of the concentration in these units of a blood sample containing 45 ppb lead, assuming that the density of blood is one gram per milliliter.

    Calculate the geologic sink and source of As (arsenic) at the lake bottom.

    A situation with an industrial input of arsenic directly into the lake at 10kg/Day. The lake volume is 1.2 x 10^8 m^3, and the average depth is 10m. The river velocities are measured as 100 L/min at both the inflow and outflow points. Water samples taken from the rivers show incoming arsenic is 0.02mg/L and the outgoing arseni

    Calcium Carbonite in a Lake

    If a piece of Calcite (Calcium Carbonate) is put into the lake, would it tend to dissolve? Calcium carbonate solubility is 10^-8.35 M2, and the measured concentration of calcium ion is 0.1mM (millimolar) Information received: Lake pH=4, and total carbonate concentration of 0.001M. Carbonate Equilibria: CO2 + H20 <-> H2