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    Fiber Optics

    Fiber optics is a technology that uses glass threads to transmit data. A fiber optics cable consists of a bundle of glass threads. These glass threads are capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. Fiber optics is used for medical purposes, data storage, telecommunications, networking, broadcast/CATV and many more purposes in everyday life.

    There are several advantages to fiber optics. Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. Therefore they can carry more data than traditional cables. Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to outside interference. They are must thinner and light than metal wires. With fiber optic technology data can be transmitted digitally rather than analogically.

    The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install. The cables are also more fragile than wire and are difficult to splice. The glass of the fiber optic cables can be affected by various chemicals including hydrogen gas. This poses a problem when the cables are underwater. Working with fiber optics requires special skills. They cables cannot be joined together as easily as copper cables and require additional training to use the equipment. 

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    Using a lens to couple a laser beam into a fiber optic cable

    We want to couple the energy of a metal vapor laser beam of wavelength (lambda = 628 nm) into a fiber optic cable. The beam of the laser has a cross-sectional area of 10mm^2 and all the beam has to be coupled into a diameter of 50 um (fiber core). A lens is used to couple the laser beam into the fiber. a) What should be the ra


    2. The text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica is about 44 million words. For a sample of about 2000 words, the average word length was 5.1 characters per word. a. Approximately how many characters are there in the encyclopedia? (Be sure to allow for spaces and punctuation between words.) b. How long would it take to transmit th