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    Other Elements

    There are four other types of elements. These elements are abstract active elements.They are all two-port elements. They are as followed:

    • Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS)

    Generates a voltage based on another voltage with respect to a specified gain. It has infinite input impedance and zero output impedance.

    • Voltage –controlled current source (VCCS)

    Generates a current based on voltage elsewhere in the circuit, with respect to a specified gain. It is used to model field-effect transistors and vacuum tubes. It has infinite input impedance and infinite output impedance. The gain is characterised by a transfer conductance which will have units of siemens.

    • Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS)

    Generates a voltage based on an input current elsewhere in the circuit with respect to a specified gain. It has zero input impedance and zero output impedance. The gain is characterised by transfer impedance which will have units of ohms.

    • Current-controlled current source (CCCS)

    Generates a current based on an input current and a specified gain.  It is used to model bipolar junction transistors. It has zero input impedance and infinite output impedance.

     

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