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    Paper Engineering

    Paper engineering looks at using renewable raw materials for useful products. Paper engineering is used in manufacturing many products. The bio chemical industry manufactures organic and agrochemicals, oleochemicals, fragrances and flavors, food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, polymers and power from biological materials. The results from paper engineering processes include, paper, cardboard and various paper derivatives. These products are used in everyday life.

    Mechanical pulping is the process where grinding and refining are used to create pup. Grinding pulp is the process of pressing logs and chips against a turning stone to produce fibers. Refiners is treating the wood chips with chemicals or heat and then crushing the objects between two disks, one or both of which are rotating. There are four types of refiner pulping which include, mechanical pulping, thermo-mechanical pulping, chemi-mechanical pulping and chemithermomchemical pulping.

    Chemical pulping is the process used to disband the lignin found in the cell walls of the raw material. The cellulose fibers are separated from the lignin after chemical pulping which creates the pulp. This pulp can create durable paper, boxes, and corrugated cardboard. Chemical pulping can be characterized by two methods, sulfate pulping and sulfite pulping.

    Materials in this process can be recycled. They must first undergo mechanical or chemical pulping to make it into pulp form. The resulting pulp is processed in the same way as normal pulp. However, the original fiber is sometimes added to enhance the quality and appearance of the product. 

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