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Spectroscopy and Ferroelectrics

James made ferroelectrics sample (Bi, La)4Ti3O12 which has a crystal structure like Figure 1 (see attachment). Basically it was a material of the chemical composition of a Bi4Ti3O12, but it has been made by partly substituting La for Bi. He decide to do some analysis:
1. To confirm whether composition is right or not, what kind of method should he use? (He wants to analyze without destruction of samples. Ferroelectrcs (Bi,La)4Ti3O12 is an insulator.
2. There are a total of 6 oxygens which composes octahedron around the Ti. As a result, of what is known in physics, when coupled with La, Ti's chemical bonding of oxygen is getting stronger. How can we confirm this? (Which method is needed?)


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Hello and thank you for posting your question to Brainmass.

For chemical composition:
x-ray spectroscopy (esp. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) can determine the chemical composition of the crystal.
In general, excitation of the atoms by x-ray causes some core electrons in each atoms to escape. thus outer shell electrons fall in order to fill in the lower energy state. As a result a photon is emitted. Since the frequency of the photon is a function of the energy, measuring the photon frequency can explicitly determine the energy levels of the atom. Since every elemnt has specific energy levels spectrum, measuring the photon spectrum can tell us the type of elements that are in the crystal. The relative intensity of the photons is a measure of the relative quantities of the elements ...

Solution Summary

This in-depth solution has step-by-step explanations and calculations to determine the applicable method used. References are provided for further understanding.