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Binu Joseph

Oct 2008
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  • Bachelor of Arts (BA) , University of Kerala, 1985
  • Master of Arts, Sreeventkeswara University, 1988
  • BEd, Bharathiya Shiksha Parishad, 2002


  • History
  • Earth Sciences

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The War of 1812 was followed by a period of exploration and settlement of the territory in the west. The exploration and settlement led to the development of six states. The main reasons for the westward expansion were the idea of manifest destiny, population growth in eastern states, cheap fertile land, economic opportunities, cheaper and faster transportation, and knowledge of overland trails. New technologies were developed as a result of the westward expansion. Cotton gin of Eli Whitney increased the production of cotton. Steam boats and locomotives were developed during this period. Other important landmarks during the period include removal of Indians, expansion of canals and railroads, Texas Rebellion, and US Mexican War. US won the war and extended its territories upto Pacific ocean. There were many reasons for the development of the west. The introduction of steamboats and railroads led to the development of trade and industry. The expansionist policies of Federal government like Homestead Act of 1862 helped the development of agricultural west. The Native Americans who lived in the west were greatly affected by the westward expansion. The population growth in the west led to the destruction of the environment and depletion of resources. The settlers and army killed the buffaloes to drive out Indians. Some of the tribes resisted the advancement of the whites but the US army defeated them in a series of battles. They were confined to reservations. Andrew Jackson, the President of the United States followed a policy of coercive removal of Indians with the passage of Indian Removal Act. The expansion also led to the destruction of their culture. The westward expansion led to the vast expansion of American land upto the Pacific ocean. Socially, the westward expansion destroyed the culture of the Native Americans. The wars with the tribes killed hundreds of them. The expansion expanded the institution of slavery. The introduction of cotton, steamboats, and railroads greatly improved the face of the west. It led to the development mining, trade, industry and rise of cities. The period after the civil war marked the beginning of economic development and industrialization. The railroads revolutionized the cattle industry. Large scale ranches were developed during this period. Large tracts of land occupied from the natives resulted in the development of agriculture, ranches, farms, and mining. Business of the sub regions were varied. Fur trade was the important business of the pioneers in the Rocky mountains. Mining was the biggest industry in the South West. Agriculture was the main business of the northwest. The discovery of gold led to large scale gold mining in California.

A) Overview of the expansion into the west.
The War of 1812 was followed by a period of exploration and settlement of the territory in the west. There was already a large tract of land received from France as result of Louisiana Agreement. The pioneers between 1816-21 began to explore the unexplo READ MORE »

History / North American History » 277890

This is on one hand answers questions and on the other hand describes an important event in the history of European exploration; slavery, voluntary and involuntary

The survival and expansion of Virginia were due, in part, to

finding gold reserves in the James River.
the discovery that tobacco would grow well there.
the resistance of the settlers to the cruelty of the English governors.
peaceful relations between the English and the Indians.

History / North American History » 227307
History / World History » 263673

Watergate scandal started when five men were arrested for burglary when they tried to break into the Democratic National Committee headquarters of Watergate complex on June 17, 1972. These men were the "Plumbers", former members of secret agencies. The story began much earlier when President Nixon tried to discredit the former Defense analyst Daniel Ellesberg who had handed over the pentagon papers to be published with the Newyork Times. The secret organization who worked against Ellensburg was given another charge during the next year to derail the Democratic ticket. Enquiry by the FBI brought to light the role of Nixon's staff in the break-in. The men who were involved were associated with the Nixon's committee to Re-elect the President. During the congressional investigation, it was revealed that white house had hand in the matter. It was found that listening devices were fixed in the oval office. John Mitchell was the Attorney General and later in 1972 was appointed as the Director of the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP). Gordon Liddy, the member of the Special Investigation group (SIG) presented an action plan to Mitchell known as the Operation Gemstone. They decided to fix listening devices at the office of the Democratic Party. Mitchell resigned from CREEP in 1972 as a result of the Watergate Scandal. During the Operation Gemstone, Gordon Liddy wanted to place listening devices of the Democratic campaign offices in order to tap the phone calls of the Chairman, Larry O'Brien. Liddy appointed James McCord and his team to do this. McCord and his team were able to place electronic devices in the telephones of Larry O'Brien. FBI director Patrick Gray testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee regarding his appointment as the Director of FBI in place of Edgar Hoover. He admitted that he had discussed the investigation matters with John Dean. The nomination of Gray failed and it was clear that John Dean tried to hide the matter from the public. The Watergate scandal was followed by the senate investigations in 1973. In July, it was revealed to the Senate that Nixon had placed advanced electronic systems to bug the conversations of the oval office. When the Senate committee and Special Prosecutor requested Nixon to hand over the tapes, it was objected on the basis of executive privileges. As the case become strong, pressure began to mount on the President. Nixon decided to fire the Special Public Persecutor Archibald Cox. Finally, Nixon fired Cox but found himself under mounding pressure to appoint a new Public Prosecutor. Nixon tried to delay the handing over the tapes by saying many excuses. One excuse was that the key tape had a gap of 18 ½ minutes. When Nixon continued to refuse to hand over the original tapes to the prosecutors, the new Public Prosecutor had no other way other than to declare Nixon as obstructing the justice in the Watergate scandal. The Supreme Court turned down the arguments of the President and instructed him to immediately hand over the tapes. When Nixon again refused to do so, the House of Representatives voted to impeach the President. Nixon realized that there was no other way but to resign. On August 8, 1974 Nixon submitted his resignation from the Presidency. He became the first American President to resign while in office. Gerald Ford, the Vice President became the next President of United States. HR Haldman was the Chief of Staff of the Presidential campaign. When the Watergate scandal became public, Haldaman tried his best to cover it up. President demanded him to submit his resignation. Later he was pardoned by the President but he was convicted for the cover up of the Watergate scandal. John Ehrlichman was the Presidential Assistant for domestic affairs. He approved the plans of the "Plumbers" to discredit the political enemies of Nixon. During the investigation, Ehrilchman tried to cover up the matters, but Nixon forced him to resign. Later he was convicted for cover up, obstruction of justice and perjury. Richard Gordon Kleindienst was at first appointed as the Assistant Attorney general and later promoted to the post of Attorney General under Nixon administration. When burglars were arrested, he was asked by Gordon Liddy to release the burglars. Kleindienst refused to do so. Liddy also told him that the origin of the operation was white house but he failed to report his confession. Eventhough, Kleindienst resigned his post, he was convicted of perjury by the court. Edward Howard Hunt was working with the CIA. After his retirement, he was appointed as a staff in the white house. He became a member of the Special Investigations Group (SIG), otherwise known as Plumbers. During the 1971, the burglary was planned and executed by Hunt and Gordon Liddy. Later Howard Hunt accepted his guilt and he was sentenced to 33 months in prison. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein were journalists who investigated the Watergate scandal with the help of government source known as "Deep Throat". Deep throat was Mark Felt, the mysterious FBI source who helped Washington Post to uncover the abuses of President Nixon. President Nixon took the right decision to resign following the investigations. The long term effects of these types of break-ins are that people will loose belief in the political parties and their agendas. It also reveals the necessarily to put everyone under the purview of law regardless of his position.

Watergate was one of the greatest scandals which happened during the presidency of Richard Nixon. The scandal started when five men were arrested for burglary when tried to break into the Democratic National Committee headquarters of Watergate complex on June 17, 1972. These men were the "Plumbers READ MORE »

History / North American History / North American History Since 1877 / Government Since 1877 » 278709

This solution describes about the American life during 1920s and 1930s. The American life was centered on four main elements. They were prohibition, Model T, jazz age, and organized crime. The economic boom and prosperity transformed the life of Americans. They began to show interest in literature, music and film. The corporate and political abuses of the period resulted in the rise of social reform or progressive era. The US congress passed 18th amendment or National Prohibition Act in 1920. It was otherwise known as the Volstead Act. Eventhough, there was support for prohibition; a group of public were against prohibition. They viewed the act as an encroachment in their constitutional rights. The immediate result of the prohibition was gangsterism. The prohibition quickly created bootleggers, speakeasies, moonshiners, bathtub gin, and rum runners. Gangsters like Al Capone exploited the anti-prohibition environment. The prohibition destroyed the brewing industry of the nation. The law enforcement agencies failed to control the illegal distilleries. In 1933, prohibition was repealed by the 21st amendment. The economic boom and rising wages added fuel to consumerism. Consumer goods like cars, refrigerators, radios, cookers etc were produced in large numbers. Henry Ford manufactured Model A cars in 1903. When he found that it was a success, he turned towards the production of Model T cars in large numbers. The cars changed the American life in a greater way that they viewed the life in a different perspective. Foods and crops were able to transport from far and wide via trucks. People also began to settle away from the cities. This led to the development of suburbs. The booming economy and newly found independence resulted in the development of a unique culture known as jazz age. There were jazz artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. The jazz age also represented the freedom of women in society. The era was also known as the decade of flappers. The women of that period had short hairs and skirts. It was also a period of sexual revolution. The period also witnessed the cultural flowering of the African Americans known as the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance brought great activity in the field of writing, art and music. One of the great poets of the time was Langston Hughes who published "Weary Blues" in 1926. Many of the literary figures of that time wrote against the activities of the lost generation. Prominent among them were F.Scott Fitzgerald, who wrote "This side of paradise" and "The Great Gatsby." Other notable literary figures who wrote in the postwar society were Sinclair Lewis who wrote "Babbitt." Some of the writers disgusted with the American way of life lived in Europe. They were Ernest Hemingway and Gertrude Stein. The other important writers include T.S Elliot, Sherwood Anderson, H.L Mencken, and Eugene O'Neill. One of the most important scientific innovations of that period was radio. American began to hear their favorite programs through radio and there was a huge growth of advertisement industry. There was growth of cinema industry. One such example was Hollywood talkies. Glamorous actors had great popularity and dominated the American pop culture

The American life was centered on four main elements. They were prohibition, Model T, jazz age, and organized crime. The economic boom and prosperity transformed the life of Americans. They began to show interest in literature, music and film.
The prohibition was the culmination of the progressi READ MORE »

History / North American History » 275808
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