This book describes the lifelong process of psychosocial development as presented by Erik Erikson. From birth to death, people change physically, intellectually, psychologically, emotionally, and socially. Erikson described a set of specific developmental tasks to be mastered in order for a person to get from one stage to the next. According to Erikson, each stage is the foundation for the next, therefore, if the tasks of any stage of development are not mastered, the subsequent stages will be difficult. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development describes what the successful completion of each stage looks like, and what to expect if a person has not been successful at completing one or more stages. Everything You Need to Know About Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development provides an overview that clearly explains the major components of Erikson’s theory. This book, describes each stage of psychosocial development from infancy through old age. Each stage is described with the details of the psychosocial crisis and the tasks of the central process. The people who make up the radius of significant relationships are identified. The prime adaptive ego quality and core pathology are explained. Suggestions are offered on how to assist infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly through their developmental processes, and how people with issues from the past can use a developmental approach to get on track.
This book is a staple for anyone who wants to make a difference with others, personally or professionally. Everything You Need to Know About Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development is an ideal quick reference for students of psychology, counseling, social work, nursing, and education.
Understanding human development is an important part of understanding problems. Every age group has specific strengths and risk factors. Human services professionals conduct assessment, treatment, and case management for clients of all ages. Effective counselors and psychologists know what is normal and healthy at each stage of development. Some human service professionals teach parents the importance of adolescents assuming different personas as they explore their identity. Others teach caregivers the importance of giving the elderly choices to help them retain a sense of competence.
Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory is epigenetic, meaning that Erikson recognized the influences of both nature and nurture. Biological development is governed by the evolution of the species as well as the familial genetics. All species develop in stages, and all members negotiate those stages in a specific order and with similar outcomes. Humans walk erect, have the capacity for language, and interpret symbols. Genetics determine the specific size and shape of a person, their physical strengths and weaknesses, and their vulnerabilities to disease and injury. Mental and emotional disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and addiction are all heritable. An individual’s intelligence, artistic ability, and athleticism are also part of one’s genetic profile. Environmental influences on development include nurturance, safety, toxins, and trauma, learning, and socialization. The psychosocial stages of development are based upon how psychological and social factors affect humans throughout their lives.