Choose from among the terms below to fill-in the blanks below. Some terms may be used more than once, and others may not be used at all. Use the same root word for both plural and for singular applications. For example, write "hypothesis" for singular, and "hypotheses" for plural.
theory assumptions predictions parsimony hypothesis replicable falsifiable anecdote experiment operational definition population sample representative sample random sample experimenter bias blind double-blind placebo naturalistic observation case history survey correlation variable correlation coefficient
-1 to +1 illusory relatedness cause experimental control independent variable dependent variable random assignment descriptive statistics inferential statistics distribution central tendency mean median mode variation range variance standard deviation confidence probability p < .05 p < .01 statistical significance.
One goal of scientific research is to describe phenomena. A more advanced goal is to explain the phenomena by developing a model or scientific (1)experiment that relates the phenomena to other known phenomena. A good (2) hypothesis contains few (3) assumptions and makes accurate (4) predictions.
Theories are adopted and retained only as long as they prove useful. When a more-useful theory is developed, the older theory is abandoned.
An infinite number of theories can be contrived to explain a phenomenon. Science would not be able to develop a solid foundation and grow without the principal of (5) parsimony, which requires that we prefer the simplest of the explanations that correspond to the data.
One criterion used to evaluate scientific theories is the extent to which the theory generates (6)____________________ . Useful (7)____________________ are testable, which is another way of saying that they are (8) falsiable. If there is no conceivable observation that would contradict the (9)____________________ , it is not (10)____________________ .
Sometimes a claim is made of personal experience someone has had that seems to conflict with scientifically-established theories. These personal (11) assumptions are often unreliable because they are not replicable. Although, strictly speaking, scientific research cannot prove that the event didn't happen, the claim should be regarded skeptically, since scientific credibility is limited to phenomena that is (12)____________________ .
In psychology we use several different types of research methods, including (13)naturalistic, where we observe things as they are happening without any intervention on our part, and the (14)____________________ , where we learn the details of an individual's experiences, largely after they have occurred.
A third method is the (15) Experimental method, where we select a (16) sample of individuals to be studied, and we subject some of them to a treatment condition and compare them to others who did not get the treatment. The individuals that get the treatment are known as the (17) experimental group, and the others, who do not get the treatment, are known as the (18) control group. The conditions that are controlled, or are measured, are variables. The treatment is controlled by the researcher, and is called the (19) placebo. The condition that is measured to see if it changes as a result of the treatment is known as the (20) dependent variable.
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This solution assists in a matching exercise, matching the psychological terms with the appropriate number.