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organizational and cultural values in decision making in process

Please explain the role that personal, organizational, and cultural values play in decision making in personal and professional lives.

Discuss how ethical dilemmas may arise when the values between an employee and a company or the values among different groups of stakeholders are competing?

Where can I find three peer-reviewed references?

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Peer-reviewed articles can be found trade journals and in universities' database such as EBSCOHost, ProQuest, and InfoTrac database.


Cultural Values and Personal Ethics Paper

Every day people make decisions that may have profound effect on their personal and/or professional lives as well as the lives of others. The decisions people make have a foundation on their personal, cultural, and perhaps organizational values. When these values are in disagreement, an ethical dilemma occurs.

This article attempts to explain how personal, cultural, and organizational values play significant parts in decision-making. In addition, the foundation of ethical dilemmas can often be traced to conflicting values. This paper will also briefly discuss how ethical dilemmas can be mitigated. A practical approach for understanding how ethical dilemmas occur, how dilemmas can be prevented, and how to make ethical decisions can best be done by studying how these values, particularly personal values, affect behavior and influence the decision-making.

Personal and Cultural Values
People's values have an immense effect on how people live and the choices they make. According to Disbrow (n.d.), "personal values will always be the cornerstone of decisions." The development of personal values and beliefs begin in childhood when people interact with organizational units such as families, caregivers, educational and religious institutions, etc. (Hopen, 2002). Experiences and interaction with organizational units influence the values people deem important to them. Personal values become a personal blueprint for people on how to live their lives, their convictions, and the decisions they make. Connor (2003) concludes that "values are global beliefs that transcendentally guide actions and judgments across specific objects and situations."

Similar to personal values, cultural values are deep-rooted since childhood. Srnka (2004) states that cultural values are deep-rooted in social heritage/traditions and encompass psychological, religious or spiritual, and moral experiences. In his research study of ten nations, Jackson (2001) finds that "significant differences are shown to exist among country cultures on issues which, although relatively minor, are part of the decision-making fabric within organizations across the globe." In a culturally diverse population, decision-making can be very complicated as the participants have different cultural upbringing and cultures. Jackson (2001) adds that the challenge includes the culture's position on uncertainty-avoidance which impacts the decision-making process. ...

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"The development of personal values and beliefs begin in childhood when people interact with organizational units such as..."