1. Why is leadership important?
2. What are the five key elements in our leadership definition? How do the elements interrelate to form this definition?
3. Are leaders born or made, and can leadership skills be developed?
4. List and define the interpersonal managerial leadership roles.
5. List and define the informational managerial leadership roles.
6. List and define the decisional managerial leadership roles.
7. List and define the levels of analysis of leadership theory.
8. List and define the leadership theory paradigms.
9. How can the shift in paradigm from management to leadership possibly help—and hurt—the management profession?
10. What are the three-pronged approach objectives to this book?
Steve Jobs: Complete questions 1-5 using Case Study 1 Steve Jobs below.
1. Explain how each of the five elements of our definition of leadership applies to Steve Jobs leading Apple.
2. Identify leadership skills Jobs has that lead to his and Apple's success. Which skill is his strongest?
3. Identify managerial leadership roles played by Jobs as CEO of Apple. Which role was the most important?
4. Which level of analysis is the primary focus of this case?
5. Explain how each of the leadership theory classifications applies to this case, and which one is most relevant.
Case Study 1 Steve Jobs:
At age 21 Steven Jobs coproduced the first PC and Apple Computer, at 25 Jobs was running Apple with a net worth of $25 million, and at age 26 he made the cover of Time magazine. More recently, Steven Jobs was given the title CEO of the decade,116 ranked #1 by Fortune on its list of "Smartest People in Tech," calling him the smartest CEO,117 and he consistently ranks high on its list of "Business-Person of the Year."118 He is also ranked by Forbes in the top 50 of "The Richest People in America."119 Jobs cofounded Apple Computer with Steven Wozniak back in 1976. Today, Apple is ranked #1 on Fortune's "The World's Most Admired Companies,"120 #1 on Business Week's "The 50 Most Innovative Companies,"121 it pulled ahead of its arch rival Microsoft to become the most valuable tech company,122 and its revenue growth rate is near three times that of Microsoft and more than triple that of IBM, HP, and Intel.123 Most of us never have any real influence over any industry, but Jobs is ranked #1 for his leadership and power in influencing five industries: computers, Hollywood, music, retailing, and wireless phones/telcom. So far, no one has had more influence over a broader range of businesses than Jobs.124 Some say that his influence actually transformed these industries.125 Let's trace his business success, and failure, along the way to his earning these titles for himself and Apple as he influenced these five industries. Together with Steve Wozniak, Jobs developed and built the personal computer (PC) in 1976 in Jobs's family garage. The Apple II kicked off the PC era in 1977, and in 1984 the Macintosh altered the direction of the computer industry. Jobs is also credited with desktop publishing, laser printers, and for pioneering personal computer networks. So Jobs was an influential founder of the PC industry. However, as Apple grew through selling stock, Jobs lost controlling ownership of his company. In 1985, Jobs was fired by the board of directors because he was controlling and unmanageable.126 Although considered a failure at this point, Jobs didn't give up and bounced back very quickly. In 1985, Jobs started NeXT (a computer platform development company specializing in the higher education and business markets). In 1986, he started what became Pixar Animated Studios and became its CEO. Jobs contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated feature films, which Disney would cofinance and distribute. Films included Toy Story, A Bug's Life, Monsters, Inc., The Incredibles, and Cars. In 2006, Jobs sold Pixar to Disney and remains on its board as its largest shareholder. In fact, Jobs's shares in Disney are worth more than five times the value of his Apple stock. So Jobs clearly influenced Hollywood films. In 1997, Apple acquired NeXT to use its technology in its Apple computers and Jobs returned to Apple after a 12-year exile. Apple was close to bankruptcy so the board appointed Jobs to his earlier position as CEO. Jobs changed its culture back to a more entrepreneurial atmosphere. Jobs is a visionary, and Apple's success is born of continual and artful innovation in every aspect of its business. According to Jobs, Apple's success comes from simply trying to make great products that we want for ourselves, and then hope that customers love them as much as we do. You are most likely aware of Apple's innovations under Jobs's leadership. Through the iPod and iTunes and Apple Stores Jobs has clearly influenced music and retailing. The iPhone has clearly influenced wireless phones/telecom. Its new iTunes App Store is also set to be very profitable as Apple plans to take a 30 percent cut on any media sales, and if they don't agree, they can be thrown off the devices,127 and its iTunes Match should be a success as well.128 The iPad was months ahead of the largely absent competition in the tablet market. And by the way, Apple never shortchanged its very profitable PC business. The PC market share has increase from 3 percent to 9.7 percent during the last decade,129 and its MacBook Air is transitioning from disk-drive-based laptop computers to the radical flash-memory.130 So PC founder Jobs continues to influence the computer industry. Although Jobs has been so influential in five industries and has been called perhaps the most charismatic CEO in business history,131 Jobs is also among the most controversial figures in business. People who have worked for Jobs over the years have mixed reactions to his leadership style. Some call him temperamental, aggressive, tough, intimidating, and very demanding. He has been known to verbally attack people who make mistakes and are not meeting goals and expectations. He is known as a control freak with a compulsive attention to details. He routinely sends products back to the lab, kills new products in their crib, demands new features or euthanizes old ones.132 He is outspoken and not afraid to anger employees and customers. Even many who feared him also had great respect for him as he did inspire loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance through continuous innovation. Even people who left Apple say it's often brutal and Jobs hogs the credit, but they've never done better work.133 Jobs dictator-like control can cause havoc for Apple partners too.134 Jobs has publicly criticized Adobe and Microsoft even though they supply Apple with the software for Apple's operating systems. In a combative mood, Jobs launched a public fight with Adobe over Apple's refusal to support Adobe's popular Flash software.135 He has also attracted Samsung, even though it makes some of the most important components Apple buys, including memory chips and displays. Samsung makes the brains inside the iPhone and IPad.136 In his 50s, Jobs has had health problems. In 2009, he took a six-month leave and underwent a liver transplant. In early 2011 he took another leave without saying when he would return or why he was leaving, but stated: "I love Apple so much and hope to be back as soon as I can."137 Although on leave, showman Jobs unexpectedly presented the iPad 2 in San Francisco in March 2011,138 and Jobs still calls the shots from home.139 In June 2011, Jobs took a break from his medical leave again to show off a new online music service called iTunes Match.140 Jobs also attended a Cupertino, California City Council Meeting to personally present the plans for a new massive headquarters to be built by 2015 on 150 acres of land, which he said will look a little like a spaceship.141 On August 24, 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO naming Tim Cook as his successor. Jobs died in October 2011. Many people question, can Apple succeed without Jobs?142 Only time will tell. In any case, Jobs found the secret to career fulfillment—he discovered something he was good at and loved to do. We can't all be another Steve Jobs, but we can find career fulfillment.
1. What are the Big Five dimensions of traits?
2. What is the primary use of personality profiles?
3. What are some of the traits that describe the high energy trait?
4. Is locus of control important to leaders? Why?
5. What does intelligence have to do with leadership?
6. Does sensitivity to others mean that the leader does what the followers want to do?
7. Does McClelland believe that power is good or bad? Why?
8. Should a leader have a dominant need for achievement to be successful? Why or why not?
9. How do attitudes develop leadership styles?
10. Which personality traits are more closely related to ethical and unethical behavior?
11. Do people change their level of moral development based on the situation?
12. Why do people justify their unethical behavior?
Bill and Melinda Gates: Complete questions 1-6 Using Case Study 2 Bill and Melinda Gates below.
1. What do you think Bill and Melinda Gates's personality traits are for each of the Big Five dimensions? Compare the two.
2. Which of the traits of effective leaders would you say has had the greatest impact on Bill and Melinda Gates's success? Compare the two.
3. Which motivation would McClelland say was the major need driving Bill and Melinda Gates to continue to work so hard despite being worth many billions of dollars?
4. Do Bill and Melinda Gates have an LMP? Compare the two.
5. What type of self-concept do Bill and Melinda Gates have, and how does it affect their success?
6. Is Bill Gates ethical in business at Microsoft? Which level of moral development is he on?
Case Study2 Bill and Melinda Gates:
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is guided by the belief that every life has equal value. The Foundation essentially gives money (grants) to other organizations (business, nonprofits, and governments) to support them in implementing the Foundation's work to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. It has three grant-making areas: Global Development Program, Global Health Program, and United States Program. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people's health and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to ensure that all people—especially those with the fewest resources—have access to the opportunities they need to succeed in school and life. The Foundation is headquartered in Seattle, Washington, with offices in Washington, D.C.; Delhi, India; Beijing, China; and London, United Kingdom. It has more than 900 employees, with an asset trust endowment of $37.1 billion, with total grant commitments since inception of $24.81 billion. The Foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Co-chairs and Trustees Bill and Melinda Gates and Trustee Warren Buffett. Bill and Melinda Gates are the founders and together they shape and approve foundation strategies, review results, advocate for the foundation's issues, and help set the overall direction of the organization.72 Before Bill and Melinda were even married, they talked about giving away 95 percent of their wealth during their lifetime. That is why they cofounded and cochair their foundation. They agreed to focus on a few areas of giving, choosing where to place their money by asking two questions: Which problems affect the most people? and Which problems have been neglected in the past? They give where they can effect the greatest change. They have pumped billions into easing the suffering of those plagued by some of the world's deadliest diseases (AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis) and revitalized failing public high schools in the United States with their financial support. Bill and Melinda will very likely give away more than $100 billion in their lifetime, and they are truly world leaders together. But let's discuss them separately so we can get to know them a bit more. William (Bill) H. Gates, III, was born in 1955 and began programming mainframe computers at age 13. While attending Harvard University, Gates developed a version of the programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer—the MITS Altair. In 1975, Gates and his childhood friend Paul Allen founded Microsoft as a partnership, and it was incorporated in 1981. He invented the software industry, masterminded the rise of the PC, and has hung in there as a force on the Internet. Bill Gates is consistently ranked as the richest man in America valued at $54 billion in 2010 by Forbes,73 and as one of the richest men in the world. He remains Chairman of the Board at Microsoft but retired from day-to-say operations in 2008 to devote most of his time to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. With more time for family, when home, Bill makes time to drop off or pick up his three kids from school every day.74 Bill Gates has an extraordinary capacity for work, having slept under his desk rather than lose minutes away from the office while building Microsoft into the software king it is today.75 He can be abrasive and is known as a demanding boss who encourages creativity and recognizes employee achievements. Several of his early employees are now millionaires. Employees are expected to be well-informed, logical, vocal, and thick-skinned. Teams must present their ideas at "Bill" meetings. During the meetings, Gates often interrupts presentations to question facts and assumptions. He shouts criticisms and challenges team members. Team members are expected to stand up to Gates, giving good logical answers to his questions. He has a personal Web site www.thegatesnotes.com that catalogs his activities and interests. You can also read his tweets on Twitter at twitter.com/BillGates. MelindaFrenchgrewupinDallasinahardworking,middleclassfamily.UnlikeBill,shegraduatedfromcollege,earningaBA(double major in computer science and economics) and an MBA from Duke University. She went to work for Microsoft in 1987; at age 22 she was the youngest recruit and the only woman among ten MBAs. For nine years she was a hotshot who climbed the corporate ladder to become general manager of information products, managing 300 employees. Along the way, Bill asked her out (in the parking lot), which led to their wedding on January 1, 1994. Melinda stopped working at Microsoft after having the first of their three children (Jennifer, Rory, and Phoebe), but she continued to serve on corporate boards, including that of Duke University. Melinda Gates is a total systems thinker who constantly sets and achieves goals. She is known as a strong team builder, who strives for collaboration in decision making. Melinda is loving and charming; she wins people over by being persuasive. She is compassionate and not afraid to get involved as she travels the world to help solve its problems. She held AIDS babies with dirty pants and comforted patients when she visited Mother Teresa's Home for the Dying in India. She has more influence than Bill when it comes to investing their assets in philanthropic projects. She is ranked in the top 30 on The World's 100 Most Powerful Women by Forbes.76
1. Why was there a shift from the trait to the behavioral theory paradigm?
2. How is leadership behavior based on traits?
3. What are the University of Iowa leadership styles?
4. What are the University of Michigan leadership styles?
5. What are the Ohio State University leadership styles?
6. What are three important contributions of the University of Michigan and Ohio State University studies?
7. What are the Leadership Grid leadership styles?
8. What are the three important contributions of the Leadership Grid and high-high research?
9. What is motivation, and why is it important to know how to motivate employees?
10. What are the content motivation theories?
11. What are the process motivation theories?
12. What are the types and schedules of reinforcement theory?
Art Friedman: Complete questions 1-7 using Case Study 3 Art Friedman Below.
1. Which University—Iowa, Michigan, and Ohio State leadership styles did Art Friedman use?
2. Which specific motivation level, factor, and need (from the content motivation theories) applies to Friedmans Appliance?
3. Do equity and expectancy theory apply to this case? Explain.
4. Which type of reinforcement did Friedman use?
5. Do you know of any organizations that use any of Friedman's or other unusual techniques? If yes, what is the organization's name? What does it do?
6. Could Friedman's techniques work in all organizations? Explain your answer.
7. In a position of authority, would you use Friedman's techniques? Which ones?
Why is leadership important?
The success of organizations is determined by the leader and researchers even go on to argue that it may be the most critical ingredient. One individual cannot run an organization and leaders need to foster a leadership mentality in all employees.
Without leadership, organizations start to stagnate and become lethargic. They fail to achieve their goals. Leaders not only play a role in strategy formulation, but more importantly, play a crucial role in implementation of organization strategies (Mills, 2005). To do this, Leaders bring in changes in processes and behavior because without this it would be difficult to steer an organization along a different route. Leaders therefore bring in long lasting changes in the organization culture by overcoming resistance to it and motivate employees to collectively achieve important objectives and goals. Without a leader an organization can degenerate to chaos and confusion.
What are the five key elements in our leadership definition? How do the elements interrelate to form this definition?
Leadership can be defined as the influencing process of leader and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change.
The five key elements of the definition of leadership are:
Followers: Leadership is a group activity because without followers, there would be no leader. The follower in turn also influences the leader. An effective leader is also an effective follower.
Influence: Leadership means influencing others. Therefore persuasion and interpersonal influence are integral to leadership. Leaders communicate, gain acceptance and motivate. New ideas are implemented through this change process.
Organizational Objectives: A leader creates a shared vision. So followers are influenced to do what is beneficial both for the organization and themselves. Leadership is goal directed. Leaders influence others to establish and achieve important organization goals.
Change: Leaders steer people through a particular course of action to achieve change. Change is the only thing permanent in a rapidly changing scenario and leaders influence followers to implement the change. There is a need to take risk and innovate and a leader inspires followers to do so.
People: The Leader exerts influence through a formal or informal process on people. If formal there will be a hierarchy with the leader at the top. In informal leadership the process is flexible and power is implied. Leaders enjoy working with people and see them succeed (Nahavandi, 2000).
Are leaders born or made, and can leadership skills be developed?
According to Anderson (2012), leadership capability falls along a bell curve. People at the top of the bell curve are born leaders and get even better over the years. Then there are the bottom 10% who don't have the inherent DNA to be a leader. But the vast majority of people, in the middle of the curve have the potential to be leaders. These people, with self awareness and training can become good and even great leaders.
Self awareness seems to be the key to leadership skill development (Anderson, 2012). This means having an accurate idea about one's own strengths and weaknesses. It is trying to understand what motivates you, how you come across in the world, your moral compass and your actions. Self awareness can be increased by becoming a fair witness of your own actions, inviting honest feedback and being a good listener. Being a good listener means not filtering what we hear through pre existing notions.
List and define the interpersonal managerial leadership roles.
Mintzberg (1973) identified three specific roles played by Managers in the interpersonal category; figureheads, leader and liaisons. As figureheads their role is symbolic and required to fulfill legal and social obligations. As leaders, managers play the role of motivating employees to achieve organization goals. As liaisons, managers build a network outside the organization, to obtain information and favors.
Tcs learning(n.d.) discusses roles that decide the interpersonal efficacy of a leader. As a good communicator, the leader is competent at transferring information and inspiring ideas to drive people to achieving goals. Being a good communicator means having the skills to listen, respond, clarify, explore ,action and review new ideas and concepts. As a coach, the leader guides and works with people to develop skills and behavior that help them to achieve outcomes. As a fair Appraiser, the leader provides relevant, specific and timely feedback to the employees on whether their performance is as per the agreed and understood expectations. As a conflict handler, the leader uses techniques to resolve conflicts arising due to differing interests of parties and also defines acceptable behavior which heads off potential conflict. As a team player, the leader is able to enhance and optimize the performance of the team as a whole, by ensuring that all ideas are aired and considered and decisions are based on consensus and democratic processes.
List and define the informational managerial leadership roles.
Mintzberg (1973) defined the informational roles as involving the processing of information. They involve the roles as a Monitor, Disseminator and as a Spokesperson. As a Monitor, the leader has to monitor the internal and external environment for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The environment keeps changing and it has to be monitored continuously so that organization strategies and processes are aligned with them. Employees also have to be monitored both from the point of view of the task as well as their behavior. As a Disseminator, the leader shares information with superiors, subordinates and colleagues in the organization, based on the relevance and utility for the concerned party. As a spokes person, the leader represents and provides information about the organization to outside bodies.
List and define the decisional managerial leadership roles.
Mintzberg (1973) defines the roles in this area being that of an Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource Allocator and Negotiator. The entrepreneurial role involves generating and implementing new ideas and change. As a disturbance handler, the leader mediates disputes and handles unexpected situations. The leader must allocate resources which could be people, equipment and management support based on the strategic direction of the firm. As a Negotiator, the leader may have to negotiate on labor issues, with customers, with suppliers as also with superiors and subordinates.
List and define the levels of analysis of leadership theory.
The level of analysis is one way of classifying leadership theory (Lussier & Achua, 2012).The three levels is individual, group and organizational.
The first level or individual level of analysis of leadership theory focuses on the individual leader and the relationship with individual followers. It is also called the dyadic process, viewing leadership as a reciprocal influencing process between the leader and the follower. There will be multiple dyadic relationships in an organization.
The second level of analysis of leadership theory is about the relationship between the leader and the group of followers. It is called the group process. It deals with the leader's role in group effectiveness. The role of a leader in empowering teams and conducting effective meetings are part of this level.
The third level of analysis is focused on organizational processes. The success of the organization depends on the effectiveness of individuals and groups. Leaders can influence organization performance through a process of transformation. A good leader will adapt the organization to the changing environment and mobilize resources for its survival. A leader influences the products and services of the organization.
List and define the leadership theory paradigms.
Lussier & Achua (2012) articulate that there are four major classifications of leadership theory which are used to explain leadership. They are trait, behavioral, contingency and integrative. A leadership theory paradigm is a shared understanding about the theories of leadership.
The trait theories relate distinct characteristics to the effectiveness of the leader. Researchers have characterized leaders as having traits such as high energy level, persuasiveness, aggressiveness and so on. But there does not seem to be a standard list of traits that guarantee leadership success.
The behavioral theories describe the styles, roles or nature of work of leaders. They focus on classifying behavior of leaders. An example is the ten managerial roles of Mintzberg.
Contingency theories relate leadership style to the leader, follower and the situation. These theories underline the relationship between the nature of work, the situation, the environment, the nature of followers, and the leader himself or herself, who influence the style of leadership.
The integrative theories combine the attributes of all the previous theories. Successful leader- follower relationship is explained through behavior, traits and the situation.
How can the shift in paradigm from management ...
Leadership and Motivation theory and concepts are outlined in the paper.