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Middle Ages

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Western Civilization achieved a relatively sophisticated level of organization during the High Middle Ages, ca. 900 - 1300 AD--why did medieval Europe give way to the early-modern era (post-1400 AD)?

I responding, please consider the following events or movements; provide examples of how traditional political, religious, or social power in Europe was challenged as the Middle Ages declined:

a. The Crises of the 14th Century (100 Years War, Black Death, Church Schism)
b. The Renaissance
c. The Reformation
d. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

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Solution Summary

By including the four historical events, this solution examines why medieval Europe gave way to the early-modern era (post-1400 AD). References provided.