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Middle Ages

Western Civilization achieved a relatively sophisticated level of organization during the High Middle Ages, ca. 900 - 1300 AD--why did medieval Europe give way to the early-modern era (post-1400 AD)?

I responding, please consider the following events or movements; provide examples of how traditional political, religious, or social power in Europe was challenged as the Middle Ages declined:

a. The Crises of the 14th Century (100 Years War, Black Death, Church Schism)
b. The Renaissance
c. The Reformation
d. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Solution Summary

By including the four historical events, this solution examines why medieval Europe gave way to the early-modern era (post-1400 AD). References provided.