What factors led to the expansion of trade and re-urbanization of Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries?
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Trade & Re-urbanization of Europe in the High Middle Ages (1100-1200 AD)
Due to the successful social and political reorganization of Europe in the early Middle Ages under the hands of Feudal Lords, fledgling monarchies & increasing Papacy control (emerging from what is termed as 'the Dark Ages'), barbarian invasions and social instability due to such conflicts became less of an issue as city-states and urban centers developed where trade via guilds and specialized collectives flourished focusing on activities that involved specialized mass production of goods agricultural produce and ...
What fostered the expansion of trade and re-urbanization of Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries?