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expansion of trade and re-urbanization of Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries

What factors led to the expansion of trade and re-urbanization of Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries?

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Trade & Re-urbanization of Europe in the High Middle Ages (1100-1200 AD)

Due to the successful social and political reorganization of Europe in the early Middle Ages under the hands of Feudal Lords, fledgling monarchies & increasing Papacy control (emerging from what is termed as 'the Dark Ages'), barbarian invasions and social instability due to such conflicts became less of an issue as city-states and urban centers developed where trade via guilds and specialized collectives flourished focusing on activities that involved specialized mass production of goods agricultural produce and ...

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What fostered the expansion of trade and re-urbanization of Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries?

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