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Islamic History: Government, Economy, Society, Values and Gender

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From different Islamic reading sources: the Qur'an, Imam Nawawi, Ibn Babawayh al-Sauq, Al-Mawardi, and Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, what can you learn about Islamic society's government, economy, social structure, values, and gender roles?

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1. From different Islamic reading sources: the Qur'an, Imam Nawawi, Ibn Babawayh al-Sauq, Al-Mawardi, and Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, what can you learn about Islamic society's government, economy, social structure, values, and gender roles?

In terms of values, gender roles and the type of society, there are two views on the Qur'an teachings. The critics argue that it promotes inequality, patriarchy (male dominant society) and violence towards women, and promotes the traditional patriarchy society, with male dominance and gender inequality. Another view, Barlas (2003) opposes this and argues that it the misuse and misinterpretation of the Qur'an text that results in behaviors like stoning women. When interpreted accurately according to ancient theologians: Imam Nawawi, Ibn Babawayh al-Sauq, Al-Mawardi, and Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali--and contemporary Islamic writers, the Qur'an, is not patriarchal or misogynistic, while it can be a source for women's liberation based on the following arguments proposed by Barlos (2003):

? The Qur'an does not represent God as Father or male; indeed, it explicitly forbids sacralizing God as Father or using similitude for God.
? Nor does it sacralize fathers or fatherhood. It does recognize that in historically existing patriarchies, men are the locus of authority and it does address patriarchies, but addressing a patriarchy is not the same as condoning or advocating one and indeed, the Qur'an repeatedly says that "following the ways of the father" has prevented people from the path of God.
? The Qur'anic accounts of the prophets Abraham and Muhammad also suggests an inherent conflict between monotheism and patriarchy inasmuch as the latter sacralizes men and their authority over women and children, which the Qur'an does not do.
? Thus, contrary to what many Muslims claim, the Qur'an does not establish men as ontologically superior to women or as rulers over them or even as heads of the household. Rather, it ...

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The solution explores what a person can learn about Islamic society's government, economy, social structure, values, and gender roles from Islamic readings.

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