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Kotter's Model: Stories of Change

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Read the "Stories of Change" section in Chapter 1 of the textbook that describes how companies such as Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's have addressed significant changes within their organizations.

1/ Using Kotter's model, identify the three (3) most significant errors made out of all of the change stories presented and describe the ramifications of those mistakes.
2/ Make at least one (1) recommendation for each change story that would have improved the effectiveness of the change process and explain why that recommendation would have altered the outcome of the change process.
3/ Attribute a change image to the leading managers or directors in each change story and provide an explanation as to why that change image label is appropriate.
4/ Recommend a different strategy for managing change in each of the one change stories presented and provide a justification for your recommended strategy.

Use at least three (3) quality academic resources.

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1/ Using Kotter's model, identify the three (3) most significant errors made out of all of the change stories presented and describe the ramifications of those mistakes.

In selecting one of the stories of change, the HP Corporation demonstrates the most fundamental challenges of businesses organizations striving to move forward with a new working environment. The premerger changes with dividing the internal departments into quadrants only seem too intensive the resistance from either company's employees. Make note, the unsatisfactory environment leading up to the merger with great displeasure all the way up to upper management and investors. Thus, the post merger eventually called for Ms. Fiorina to creating a "management by walking around" style that in hindsight was a bit too late. Keep in mind, the road to success in any change initiative steams from initially planning and implementation of protocols that strengthens the relationship across the board for business continuity.

2/ Make at least one (1) ...

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The solution uses the Kotter's Model in the stories of change.

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(Required Reading)

Aguirre, D., and Alpern, M. (2014). 10 principles of leading change management. Organizations and People, (75). Retrieved from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/00255?gko=9d35

Anderson, C.S. & Zaballero, A.G. (2015) Organization development and change models. In Zaballero, A.G., Corn, C.M. Haynes, C. Rothwell, W.J. Anderson, C.S. & Park, C.H. (eds) Organization Development Fundamentals: Managing Strategic Change. Alexandria, VA: Association For Talent Development. Chapter 2: pp 13-42

Appelbaum, S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model. The Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621711211253231

Appreciative inquiry commons (n.d.). Retrieved from http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu

Why Implementation matters. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/operations/Why_implementation_matters#

Caldwell, R. (2012). Leadership and learning: A critical reexamination of Senge's learning organization. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 25(1), 39-55. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11213-011-9201-0.

Change First (2014). How to actively engage your people in organisational change.

Choi, M. (2011). Employees' attitudes toward organizational change: A literature review. Human Resource Management, 50(4), 479-500. doi:10.1002/hrm.20434

de Caluwe, L. & Vermaak, H. (2004). Change Paradigms: An Overview. Organization Development Journal, 22(4), 9-18.

Decker, P., Durand, R., Mayfield, C. O., McCormack, C., Skinner, D., & Perdue, G. (2012). Predicting implementation failure in organization change. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 16(2), 29-49.

Isett, K. R., Glied, S. A., Sparer, M. S., & Brown, L. D. (2013). When Change Becomes Transformation. Public Management Review, 15(1), 1-17. doi:10.1080/14719037.2012.686230

Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59-67.

Leadership styles. (2008). Leadership Toolbox. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-toolbox.com/leadership-styles.html

Pardo-del-Val, M., Martínez-Fuentes, C., & Roig-Dobón, S. (2012). Participative management and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision, 50(10), 1843-1860. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00251741211279639

Poole, M. S., & Van de Ven, A. H. (2004). Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Prosci. (1996-2014). Change management - the systems and tools for managing change . Retrieved November 20th, 2014, from http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-change-leadership-mod3a.htm

Reissner, S. C., Pagan, V., & Smith, C. (2011). 'Our iceberg is melting': Story, metaphor and the management of organisational change. Culture & Organization, 17(5), 417-433. doi:10.1080/14759551.2011.622908

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from Trident online library eBook Academic Collection (EBSCO)

Wei, M., & Ooi, T. (2011). Organization transformation: What matters most is the leader's actions. International Journal of Emerging Sciences, 1(3), 211-230.

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