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    Medicaid Case: Kotter's Model

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    Drawing on the material in the required and background reading, prepare a 6-7 page paper (not including cover and reference pages) in which you:
    1.Analyze the Medicaid Case Study using Kotter's model for change. Specifically, what did or didn't the City, in partnership with the consulting firm, do that followed or went against the model.
    2.What types of interventions were used to "induce" change
    3.What types of resistance to change were present? What did or didn't the City and/or the consulting firm do that enabled them to overcome any resistance to change. .
    4.Define the leadership strategies present to lead the change and overcome resistance.
    5.What limitations does Kotter's model have, and how did they manifest in this particular situation? What should be done to ensure that when using it they do not impact your analysis / change project?

    (Required Reading)

    Aguirre, D., and Alpern, M. (2014). 10 principles of leading change management. Organizations and People, (75). Retrieved from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/00255?gko=9d35

    Anderson, C.S. & Zaballero, A.G. (2015) Organization development and change models. In Zaballero, A.G., Corn, C.M. Haynes, C. Rothwell, W.J. Anderson, C.S. & Park, C.H. (eds) Organization Development Fundamentals: Managing Strategic Change. Alexandria, VA: Association For Talent Development. Chapter 2: pp 13-42

    Appelbaum, S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model. The Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621711211253231

    Appreciative inquiry commons (n.d.). Retrieved from http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu

    Why Implementation matters. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/operations/Why_implementation_matters#

    Caldwell, R. (2012). Leadership and learning: A critical reexamination of Senge's learning organization. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 25(1), 39-55. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11213-011-9201-0.

    Change First (2014). How to actively engage your people in organisational change.

    Choi, M. (2011). Employees' attitudes toward organizational change: A literature review. Human Resource Management, 50(4), 479-500. doi:10.1002/hrm.20434

    de Caluwe, L. & Vermaak, H. (2004). Change Paradigms: An Overview. Organization Development Journal, 22(4), 9-18.

    Decker, P., Durand, R., Mayfield, C. O., McCormack, C., Skinner, D., & Perdue, G. (2012). Predicting implementation failure in organization change. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 16(2), 29-49.

    Isett, K. R., Glied, S. A., Sparer, M. S., & Brown, L. D. (2013). When Change Becomes Transformation. Public Management Review, 15(1), 1-17. doi:10.1080/14719037.2012.686230

    Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59-67.

    Leadership styles. (2008). Leadership Toolbox. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-toolbox.com/leadership-styles.html

    Pardo-del-Val, M., Martínez-Fuentes, C., & Roig-Dobón, S. (2012). Participative management and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision, 50(10), 1843-1860. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00251741211279639

    Poole, M. S., & Van de Ven, A. H. (2004). Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    Prosci. (1996-2014). Change management - the systems and tools for managing change . Retrieved November 20th, 2014, from http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-change-leadership-mod3a.htm

    Reissner, S. C., Pagan, V., & Smith, C. (2011). 'Our iceberg is melting': Story, metaphor and the management of organisational change. Culture & Organization, 17(5), 417-433. doi:10.1080/14759551.2011.622908

    Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from Trident online library eBook Academic Collection (EBSCO)

    Wei, M., & Ooi, T. (2011). Organization transformation: What matters most is the leader's actions. International Journal of Emerging Sciences, 1(3), 211-230.

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    Solution Preview

    In compliance with BrainMass rules this is not a hand in ready paper but is only guidance.

    1. We analyze the Medicaid Case study from the point of view of Kotter's eight step model for change. According to Kotter the eight steps for change are to create a sense of urgency, building guiding coalitions, forming strategic vision & initiatives, enlisting volunteer army, enabling action by removing barriers, generating short term wins, sustaining acceleration, and initiating change (1). In case of change management in Medicaid offices in New York City there were several actions taken by the consulting firm that went against Kotter's steps.
    The first step of Kotter is to create a sense of urgency. In case of Medicaid offices, NYC, the leadership or the executive leadership actually faded into the background (2). They did not create a sense of urgency. Instead the consultants formed a change team in every office which was given the responsibility of bringing about change. The second step of Kotter is to build a guiding coalition. Kotter wants the leadership to be visible and get support from key people from the organizations. However, in case of Medicaid offices, NYC, the consultants simply formed four or five member change teams in each office. In contrast to Kotter's recommendation the leadership did not take initiative. There was not search for effective change leaders as prescribed by Kotter's model. The third step of Kotter's model is forming strategic vision & initiatives. The sense of Kotter is that the leaders in charge of making the change should form the strategic vision & take initiatives. In case of Medicaid offices, NYC, the leadership took just the opposite approach. The frontline workers were asked to generate ideas and make changes. The management and leadership did just the opposite, they allowed the frontline workers to generate ideas and implemented the changes suggested by frontline workers. The fourth step by Kotter is to enlist Volunteer Army. In case of Medicaid offices, NYC, the consultants did appoint four to five member change teams in every office. In contrast to what Kotter meant, the Medicaid offices, NYC did not develop values central to change, the leadership did not develop a "vision" as to how they see the organization in future, nor did the management develop specific strategies for achieving the vision. The management instead simply took the ideas from frontline workers and developed strategies for achieving that vision. If the change teams can be called volunteer army, then there is a similarity between Kotter's prescription and what happened at Medicaid offices, NYC.
    The fifth step of Kotter's model is to enable action by removing barriers. Kotter prescribes that the change leadership should actively check for barriers to it. It should remove obstacles so that people are empowered to execute the vision so that it can help change. In case of Medicaid offices, NYC, the leadership took no action to identify and remove barriers and obstacles, instead it gave positive signals for change. The positive signals were given by providing safe psychological space for staff. The leadership provided venues for the change teams to freely change and try out ideas without interfering. A strong signal was received by the frontline staff when they saw the top management implement the ideas generated and suggested by them. Instead of actively removing barriers to change, the leaders recognized outstanding employees. A system similar to new employee of the month was created and the honorees were ...

    Solution Summary

    The response provides you a structured explanation of transformation change at Medicaid offices, NYC . It also gives you the relevant references.

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