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#6 Macrophages perform the final job of removing tissue debris and other products of infection. Indicate some of the possible effect when these scavengers cannot successfully complete the work of phagocytosis. (1pt.)

#11 A patient with chronic diarrhea was found to lack IgA in his secretions, although he had a normal level of serum IgA. What was this patient found to be unable to produce? (1pt.)

#14 A woman with blood type A+ once received a transfusion of AB+ blood. When she carried a type B+ fetus, the fetus developed hemolytic disease of the newborn. Explain why this fetus developed this condition when another type B+ fetus in a type A+ mother was normal. (2pts.)

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Question: Macrophages perform the final job of removing tissue debris and other products of infection. Indicate some of the possible effect when these scavengers cannot successfully complete the work of phagocytosis.

Response: One example that can occur is the formation of a granuloma. Sometimes, macrophages can engulf a bacterium, for example, but not destroy it. Here, the lysosome doesn't fuse with the phagosome. In such cases of not completing phagocytosis, other macrophages may surround and attack the infected macrophage forming a type of chronic inflammation. This happens with tuberculosis usually. Also, if macrophages can't finish their job, the "on" switch remains. Nothing is there to shut it off. Chronic inflammation, vasodilation, and increased capillary permeability may remain longer than normal.

Also, since macrophages aren't phagocytosing properly, they won't be able ...

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Microbiology Career Specialization

The science and practice of Microbiology impact on many facets of life and the functioning of the Earth. Microbiology also plays important roles in human affairs. As a testament to this, every spring, thousands of microbiologists gather for the Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), which is the world's oldest and largest life science organization. These microbiologists represent a diversity of disciplines of microbiological specialization.

1) Provide ten examples of Microbiology career specializations. For each example, provide a one sentence description.
2) Provide ten examples of applications of the science of Microbiology. For each example, provide a one sentence description.

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