8. The virulence of an organism may be enhanced by all the following except
a. Its ability to produce exotoxins.
b. Its ability to overcome body defense.
c. Its ability to spread through the tissues.
d. Its ability to grow on artificial laboratory media.
15. A scientist who studies the pattern of disease in a community and attempts to locate its source is called a(n)
18. Endotoxins are generally produced by
b. Gram positive bacteria
c. Gram negative bacteria
d. The genus bacillus
19. Opsonins may be described as
a. Types of white blood cells
b. Antibodies that enhance the efficiency of phagocytosis
c. Types of Endotoxins produced by bacteria
d. Types of bacterial exotoxins
23. Antigenic determinants are the parts of antigen molecules that
a. Code for antibody molecules
b. Stimulate phagocytosis
c. Stimulate the immune system
d. Clot blood
25. Antibody-mediated immunity is the form of immunity that
a. Requires cell-to-cell contact for antigen neutralization
b. Takes place in the blood
c. Relies on the activity of perforins and granzymes
d. Does not require phagocytosis
26. The uniqueness of an individual is defined in part by the
a. Type of antibodies produced by that individual
b. Antigens to which the individual can respond
c. Ability to produce T cells after passage through the thymus
d. MHC proteins on the surfaces of the individual's cells.
27. The chemical enhancers in cell-mediated immunity are
a. Cytokines, such as the interleukins
b. Chains of amino acids called antibodies
c. Produced by plasma
d. Indentical with cell-surface receptors on B cells
32. A neutral barrier to the intestine is provided by the extremely alkaline environment of the stomach contents
37. The number of organisms that must be taken into the body for disease to occur is essentially the same for all infectious agents
42. Arthropods are important as mechanical vectors of disease even through they never become infected by the parasite
45. Organisms in a commensalistic relationship with the human body derive benefit from the body but neither harm nor benefit the body
46. Parasites vary greatly in their pathogenicity
47. Direct methods for the transmission of disease include consumption of contaminated food or water, an arthropod bite, and contact with fomites.
48. An arthropod that is infected and that can transmit parasites is considered a mechanical vector.
Please confirm correctness of answers. See attached file for full problem description.