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Senses and Endocrine System

The endocrine system plays an important role in our ability to handle stress. Hormone release associated with the stress response can help us to survive and handle crisis situations. However, chronic stress can result in unregulated release of stress hormones that can have negative effects on the brain and our immune systems. prepare a 2-3 page paper in which you:

Describe the difference between acute and chronic stressors
Describe the stress response and the effects of cortisol release on the human body. (With which division of the nervous system is the stress response associated?)
Discuss and label the components of HPA axis and its feedback mechanisms.
Discuss the pathologies associated with dysregulation of cortisol, focusing on the brain and the immune system.

Engage in independent research to learn about diseases of the endocrine system. You may want to begin your search in the book, Human Anatomy and Physiology: Cortisol: Physiology, Regulation, and Health Implications, on your ebrary bookshelf.

Select "Ebrary"from Trident's Online Library website: https://coursenet.trident.edu/onlinelibrary_main.php

You will find the readings on the Anatomy and Physiology I Ebrary bookshelf which can be accessed via this link as well:

Ebrary bookshelf (folder): http://site.ebrary.com/lib/tourou/viewFolder.action?sharedKey=DKSFJONSEEDWBRRYAZOBDBDMKFLLPYHR&userName=trmurray

Bobick, J and Balaban, N. "Sensory System," and "Endocrine System" Handy Anatomy Answer Book. Visible Ink Press. MI, USA. 2008. eISBN: 9781578592326

Brooks, Arthur. "Endocrine System." Systems of Our Body. Global Media. Delhi, India. 2007. eISBN: 9788189940829

Solution Preview

The nervous and endocrine systems act together to coordinate functions of all body systems. The nervous system acts through nerve impulses conducted along axons of neurons. Nerve impulses trigger the release of mediator molecules called neurotransmitters. The endocrine system controls body cavities by releasing mediators called hormones. A hormone is a mediator molecules that regulate the activity of cells in other parts of the body. Hormones enter the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body. Both hormones and neurotransmitters exert their effects by binding to receptors on their targets cells. Responses of the endocrine system are slower than responses of the nervous system.

The endocrine system produces the stresses that we experience. Everyone experiences stress at some time and stress produces changes in many body systems, including increased heart rate and blood pressure. There are different types of stresses:

External and Internal Stressors
External stressors are physical stimulus like pain, hot, or cold temperature and stressful psychological environments like poor working conditions or abusive relationships.

Internal stressors can be physical like infections, illnesses, inflammations. It can also be psychological, such as intense worry.

Acute and Chronic Stress
Stressors can be defined as short-term( acute) or long-term (chronic).
Acute Stress. Acute stress is sudden or short-term stress. It is the reaction to an immediate threat, such as the fight or flight response. The fight or flight response is initiated by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system ( ANS), including the adrenal medulla. It quickly mobilizes the body's resources for immediate physical activity. It brings huge amounts of glucose and ...

Solution Summary

The nervous and endocrine systems act together to coordinate functions of all body systems. The nervous system acts through nerve impulses conducted along axons of neurons. Nerve impulses trigger the release of mediator molecules called neurotransmitters. The endocrine system controls body cavities by releasing mediators called hormones. A hormone is a mediator molecules that regulate the activity of cells in other parts of the body. The hormones and nervous system made up the acute and chronic stress responses to external stimuli.

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